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引用本文:王金霞,孟炜淇,李国祥,高俊峰,蔡永久,张庭廷,刘坤.巢湖流域水生植物多样性.湖泊科学,2017,29(6):1386-1397. DOI:10.18307/2017.0611
WANG Jinxia,MENG Weiqi,LI Guoxiang,GAO Junfeng,CAI Yongjiu,ZHANG Tingting,LIU Kun.Diversity of aquatic plants in Chaohu Basin. J. Lake Sci.2017,29(6):1386-1397. DOI:10.18307/2017.0611
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巢湖流域水生植物多样性
王金霞,孟炜淇,李国祥,高俊峰,蔡永久,张庭廷,刘坤
作者单位E-mail
王金霞 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 重要生物资源保护与利用研究安徽省重点实验室, 芜湖 241000  
孟炜淇 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 重要生物资源保护与利用研究安徽省重点实验室, 芜湖 241000  
李国祥 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 重要生物资源保护与利用研究安徽省重点实验室, 芜湖 241000  
高俊峰 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008  
蔡永久 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008  
张庭廷 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 重要生物资源保护与利用研究安徽省重点实验室, 芜湖 241000  
刘坤 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 重要生物资源保护与利用研究安徽省重点实验室, 芜湖 241000 hudixiao@126.com 
摘要:
水生植物在浅水湖泊或河流生态系统中具有非常重要的作用.通过2次野外实地调查,对巢湖流域水生植物物种的区系组成和多样性进行初步分析.结果表明:巢湖流域水生植物共有43科85属123种(含种下分类单位,下同),其中蕨类植物有5科6属6种,被子植物38科77属117种,在被子植物中双子叶植物25科39属63种,单子叶植物13科40属54种.水禾(Hygroryza aristata)为安徽省首次记录;以禾本科(Gramineae)、蓼科(Polygonaceae)和莎草科(Cyperaceae)等为优势科;以蓼属(Polygonum)、眼子菜属(Potamogeton)和菱属(Trapa)等为优势属,属的组成比较分散,寡种属和单种属占总属数的96.5%;以喜旱莲子草(Alternanthera philoxeroides)、芦苇(Phragmites australis)、菹草(Potamogeton crispus)、菱(Trapa sp.)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)和黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)等为优势种;从分布区类型看,在科级水平上有6个类型,科的分布区类型以世界广布最多,达55.81%,热带分布的科(11科)多于温带分布的科(8科);在属级水平上有13个类型,属的分布区类型以世界广布最多(36.47%),其次是泛热带分布(20.0%);从不同流域来看,水生植物物种多样性以白石天河流域最高,店埠河南淝河流域最低,这可能与南淝河水质污染比较严重有一定的关系.
关键词:  巢湖流域  水生植物  多样性
DOI:10.18307/2017.0611
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07501-002-008)、安徽省皖江城市带退化生态系统的恢复与重建协同创新中心项目和国家自然科学基金项目(31170443)联合资助.
Diversity of aquatic plants in Chaohu Basin
WANG Jinxia,MENG Weiqi,LI Guoxiang,GAO Junfeng,CAI Yongjiu,ZHANG Tingting,LIU Kun
Abstract:
The abundance and composition of aquatic plants have great effect on shallow lakes or river ecosystems. The diversity of aquatic plants from rivers and lakeshore zone in Chaohu Basin were investigated in April and July, 2013. The flora of aquatic plants was analyzed and the species diversity was assessed. Results showed that:The species number of aquatic plants was relatively high. There were total 123 species belonged to 43 families and 85 genera,among of which there were about 5 families, 6 genera, 6 species in Pteridophyta, 25 families, 39 genera, 63 species in Dicotyledoneae and 13 families, 40 genera, 54 species in Monocotyledoneae. Hygroryza aristata was first recorded in Anhui Province. Gramineae, Polygonaceae and Cyperaceae were the dominant families. The preponderant genera included Polygonum, Potamogeton and Trapa. The percentage of the genera including only 1 species or 2-4 species accounted for 96.5%. The dominant species were Alternanthera philoxeroides, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton crispus, Trapa sp., Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hydrilla verticillata. At family level, there were 6 distribution types. The proportion of the cosmopolitan type was highest and reached 55.81%, and the tropic elements(11 families) were more than temperate ones(8 families). At genus level, there were 13 distribution types. The cosmopolitan type was 36.47% and the pantropic type was 20.0%. Alpha diversity was highest in the Baishitian River, and was lowest in the Nanfeihe River. Serious water pollution could be the main reason accounting for the lower species diversity in the Nanfeihe River.
Key words:  Chaohu Basin  aquatic plant  diversity
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