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引用本文:蔡艳洁,张恩楼,刘恩峰,袁和忠,王荣,孔德平,周起超.云南阳宗海沉积物重金属污染时空特征及潜在生态风险.湖泊科学,2017,29(5):1121-1133. DOI:10.18307/2017.0510
CAI Yanjie,ZHANG Enlou,LIU Enfeng,YUAN Hezhong,WANG Rong,KONG Deping,ZHOU Qichao.Spatio-temporal characteristics of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in the sediments of Lake Yangzonghai,Yunnan Province. J. Lake Sci.2017,29(5):1121-1133. DOI:10.18307/2017.0510
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云南阳宗海沉积物重金属污染时空特征及潜在生态风险
蔡艳洁1,2, 张恩楼2, 刘恩峰2, 袁和忠3, 王荣2, 孔德平4, 周起超2,4
1.南京大学环境学院, 南京 210023;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;3.南京信息工程大学环境科学与工程学院, 南京 210044;4.云南省环境科学研究院高原湖泊流域污染过程与管理云南省重点实验室, 昆明 650034
摘要:
分析了阳宗海柱状及表层沉积物中Al、Fe、Mn、Zn、Cr、Co、Ni、Cu、As、Cd、Pb等金属元素的含量,结合沉积年代学,研究了沉积物重金属污染的时空变化和潜在生态风险特征.结果表明,表层沉积物中重金属含量具有一定的空间差异性,As、Cd、Cu、Pb和Zn在中东部湖区含量较高,而Cr、Co、Ni含量高值位于南、北湖区的近岸区域;柱状沉积物中,1990s之前As、Cd、Cu、Pb和Zn含量较为稳定,1990s中后期以来,其含量逐渐增加,并在2009-2010年前后达到最大值,此后逐渐下降;而柱状沉积物中Cr、Co、Ni含量变化趋势与Al、Fe相似,总体上由下向上逐渐降低,这主要与沉积物质地(粒度)逐渐变粗有关.重金属富集系数表明,阳宗海沉积物中主要污染元素为As、Cd、Cu、Pb和Zn,1990s中后期污染程度快速增加,2009-2010年前后达到峰值,此后污染程度逐渐降低;表层沉积物中Cu为未污染至"弱"污染水平;Zn、Pb为"弱-中等"污染水平,As为"中等-强"污染水平,Cd为"弱-强"污染水平,中东部湖区污染程度高于其他湖区,这可能与该湖区缺少入湖径流、自然碎屑物质沉积速率较低以及砷污染事件等人为源的重金属贡献影响更为显著有关.生态风险评价结果表明,在2002-2010年前后沉积物重金属达到"中等-强"潜在生态危害,主要贡献因子是Cd和As,近年来其生态风险等级逐渐降低;表层沉积物中重金属在中东部湖区具有"中等"程度潜在生态危害,而其他湖区表层沉积物重金属具有较低程度的潜在生态风险.
关键词:  阳宗海  沉积物  重金属  污染  潜在生态风险  时空特征
DOI:10.18307/2017.0510
分类号:
基金项目:科技基础性工作专项(2014FY110400)、国家自然科学基金项目(41572337,41271214)和云南省科技计划项目(2015RA084)联合资助.
Spatio-temporal characteristics of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in the sediments of Lake Yangzonghai,Yunnan Province
CAI Yanjie1,2, ZHANG Enlou2, LIU Enfeng2, YUAN Hezhong3, WANG Rong2, KONG Deping4, ZHOU Qichao2,4
1.School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;3.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, P. R. China;4.Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Management of Plateau Lake-watershed, Yunnan Institute of Environmen-tal Science, Kunming 650034, P. R. China
Abstract:
Contents of Al,Fe,Mn,Zn,Cr,Co,Ni,Cu,As,Cd and Pb in the surface and core sediments of Lake Yangzonghai were determined.Combined with geochronology,the heavy metal spatio-temporal characteristics,the status relative to the pre-in-dustrial levels,and potential ecological risk of the pollution were evaluated by the surface and core sediments from Lake Yangzong-hai.The results showed that metal contents exhibited obviously spatial variations in the surface sediments.Contents of As,Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn were generally higher in the middle-east lake area than those in other areas.In contrast,contents of Cr,Co and Ni showed higher values in the south lake area.Contents of As,Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn in the core sediment had increased gradually since the mid-1990s and reached the maximum values around the year of 2009-2010,followed by a gradual decline in recent years.Contents of Cr,Co and Ni showed similar temporal variations to the trends of detrital metals (such as Al and Fe),and they decreased generally in recent hundred years.As,Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn in sediments of Lake Yangzonghai were contaminated as indi-cated by the enrichment coefficients,showing that metal contaminations began at the mid-1990s and reached the maximum values around the year of 2009-2010,but it declined gradually in recent years with the implementation of industrial discharge control.In the surface sediments,Cu was at unpolluted to minimal contamination levels,while Zn and Pb displayed minimal to moderate con-tamination levels.Metal As had moderate to strong contamination levels,and Cd showed minimal to strong contamination levels.The pollution levels of the metals in the eastern lake were higher than those in other lake areas,these are because of a relatively rare runoff,low deposition of detrital materials and high anthropogenic/detrital metal sedimentation.The metals in sediment of Lake Yangzonghai may pose a medium to strong potential ecological risk when compared with a historical pollution peak around 2002-2010.The main contribution factors were Cd and As.Potential eco-risks of the metals decreased in recent years and reduced to the low level except in the east lake area,where the metals may be of a moderate potential ecological risk.
Key words:  Lake Yangzonghai  sediment  heavy metals  pollution  potential ecological risk  spatio-temporal characteristics
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