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引用本文:熊剑,喻方琴,田琪,黄代中,李利强.近30年来洞庭湖水质营养状况演变特征分析.湖泊科学,2016,28(6):1217-1225. DOI:10.18307/2016.0607
XIONG Jian,YU Fangqin,TIAN Qi,HUANG Daizhong,LI Liqiang.The evolution of water quality and nutrient condition in Lake Dongting in recent 30 years. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(6):1217-1225. DOI:10.18307/2016.0607
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近30年来洞庭湖水质营养状况演变特征分析
熊剑,喻方琴,田琪,黄代中,李利强
作者单位E-mail
熊剑 岳阳市环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000  
喻方琴 岳阳市环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000  
田琪 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000  
黄代中 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000  
李利强 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000 liliqiang858@163.com 
摘要:
根据19862015年30年的水质监测数据,利用湖泊水质单因子评价和综合营养状态指数(TLI)对洞庭湖水质营养状况变化趋势进行评价分析.19862015年全湖Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质百分比呈现极显著下降趋势,近5年来稳定在Ⅳ类水平,影响水质的污染物为总氮(TN)和总磷(TP),全湖TN浓度、TP浓度和TLI在过去30年里呈显著或极显著上升趋势,TN和TP等是洞庭湖水质类别的主要影响因子.在空间分布上,TLI、TN浓度、TP浓度和Chl.a浓度高低顺序均表现为东洞庭湖>南洞庭湖>西洞庭湖,且东洞庭湖TN浓度和Chl.a浓度与其它湖区差异显著.19862002年洞庭湖水质营养状态呈现波动上升趋势,主要与面源污染有关;20032007年富营养化趋势有所减缓,可能与期间工业污染下降和水环境容量扩大有关;但20082015年又开始明显加剧,可能是流域内工业与农业污染增加、内源污染释放与水环境容量减小造成的.30年来洞庭湖各湖区基本均处于中营养状态,但接近轻度富营养且20082010年和2015年东洞庭湖等部分湖区达到轻度富营养水平.洞庭湖近年来蓝藻门所占比例明显上升,部分湖区已经暴发蓝藻水华.
关键词:  洞庭湖  水体富营养化  水华  总氮  总磷  综合营养状态指数
DOI:10.18307/2016.0607
分类号:
基金项目:2015年湖南环保科技计划项目(2015015)和全国重点湖泊水库生态安全保障方案项目(WFLY-2009-01-PG05)联合资助.
The evolution of water quality and nutrient condition in Lake Dongting in recent 30 years
XIONG Jian,YU Fangqin,TIAN Qi,HUANG Daizhong,LI Liqiang
Abstract:
Based on the 30 years' monitoring data in Lake Dongting from 1986 to 2015,we evaluated the changing pattern of water quality and nutrient condition using single factor's evaluation and water trophic level index(TLI). The water quality of Lake Dongting remained at Ⅳ level in the last five years and the percentages of Ⅰ-Ⅲ level declined significantly from 1986 to 2005. Total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) were the major influential factors on the water quality. Over the long-term preriod, the concentration of TN, TP and TLI increased significantly from 1986 to 2015.It showed that TN and TP were major factors which affected the water quality and TLI in Lake Dongting. The ranking order of TN,TP and Chl.a in different part of Lake Dongting was East>South>West. TN and Chl.a of the East part were the significantly highest.The water quality was significantly influenced by the flood during 1986-2002,while it tended to improve during 2003-2007,because of the decrease of industry pollution and water capacity expansion. However, it tended to eutrophic again during 2008-2015 which might be caused by the increase of the pollution from local industry and agriculture, endogenous pollution release and water capacity decrease. In the last 30 years, the whole lake was at the mesotrophic level, but sufferred to light eutrophication especially in the eastern lake, which arrived at light eutrophication during 2008-2010 and 2015. The abundance of blue algae in Lake Dongting increased quickly in last 5 years, while some part of the lake had outbreak blue algae bloom.
Key words:  Lake Dongting  water eutrophication  algae bloom  total nitrogen  total phosphorus  water trophic level index
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