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引用本文:刘国锋,韩士群,刘学芝,何俊.藻华聚集的环境效应:对漂浮植物水葫芦(Eichharnia crassipes)抗氧化酶活性的影响.湖泊科学,2016,28(1):31-39. DOI:10.18307/2016.0104
LIU Guofeng,HAN Shiqun,LIU Xuezhi,HE Jun.The environmental effects of algae bloom cluster:Impact on the antioxidant enzyme activities of water hyacinth (Eichharnia crassipes). J. Lake Sci.2016,28(1):31-39. DOI:10.18307/2016.0104
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藻华聚集的环境效应:对漂浮植物水葫芦(Eichharnia crassipes)抗氧化酶活性的影响
刘国锋1,2, 韩士群1, 刘学芝3, 何俊4
1.江苏省农业科学院资源与环境研究所, 南京 210014;2.中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心, 农业部淡水渔业和种质资源利用重点实验室, 无锡 214081;3.国环宏博(北京)节能环保科技有限责任公司, 北京 100006;4.无锡市农林局水产技术指导站, 无锡 214023
摘要:
利用以水葫芦为代表的水生植物进行水体生态治理,具有环保、生态和可持续发展的优点.然而,在外源和内源污染尚未完全控制的情况下,夏季蓝藻水华仍然会频繁暴发.系统研究水生植物对藻华聚集后形成的逆境环境下的生理适应机制可为减轻藻华聚集的不良影响、充分发挥水生植物的水体净化功能发挥重要作用.以水葫芦为代表,采用模拟实验,研究在高温阶段(水温>25℃)、水华聚集下对水葫芦关键酶活性的影响及其环境效应,以揭示蓝藻水华聚集后引起的浅水生态系统中水生植物消亡的深层机理.结果表明,藻华聚集会很快消耗掉水生植物根区内的溶解氧,水体呈现缺氧状态(溶解氧<0.2mg/L);植物根区内氧化还原电位值出现明显下降,实验进行1d后低于-100mV,实验结束时达-199.9mV,水体呈现强还原环境.植物叶片中丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)含量呈现快速增加的变化趋势,至实验结束时添加120g/L的处理组中其含量分别为2.17μmol/g(FW)、266.497U/g、1988.60U/(g·min),而叶片中过氧化氢酶(CAT)呈现快速下降的趋势,至实验结束时其含量为6.09U/(g·min);根系中MDA、POD至实验结束时其含量分别为0.57μmol/g(FW)、525.161U/(g·min),呈现快速下降的趋势;SOD、CAT含量在实验结束时高达221.71U/g、35.10U/(g·min),表现为快速增加的趋势.水葫芦关键抗氧化酶活性的变化,表明藻华长期聚集、腐解带来的水体缺氧等不良条件对植物产生了环境胁迫作用,较长时间影响(>5d)下对植物产生了严重的伤害作用;同时也表明藻华严重聚集及藻细胞腐解产生的环境胁迫是漂浮植物水葫芦无法生长乃至死亡的主要影响因素.因此,在利用水生植物进行水体净化的工程实践中,要避免蓝藻的严重堆积,以减轻藻华暴发对植物的不利影响和充分发挥植物的水体净化功能.
关键词:  藻华聚集  环境效应  漂浮植物  水葫芦  酶活性
DOI:10.18307/2016.0104
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学青年基金项目(41101525)、江苏省自主创新资金项目(CX(12)5057)和国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07103-005)联合资助.
The environmental effects of algae bloom cluster:Impact on the antioxidant enzyme activities of water hyacinth (Eichharnia crassipes)
LIU Guofeng1,2, HAN Shiqun1, LIU Xuezhi3, HE Jun4
1.Institute of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014, P. R. China;2.Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, P. R. China;3.Guo-huan-hong-bo(Beijing)Environmental Technology CO. LTD., Beijing 100006, P. R. China;4.Fisheries Technical Guidance Station of Wuxi Municipal Bureau of Agriculture, Forestry, Wuxi 214023, P. R. China
Abstract:
Using the floating plants water hyacinth(Eichharnia crassipes)to purify the polluted water has possessed the advantages of environmental protection, ecological and sustainable development. However, the algae blooms are frequently occurred in the summer and caused the massive nutrients(mainly phosphorus and nitrogen)accumulation, which often becomes the pollution sources of water body. It is vital of systematic studying the physiological adaptation mechanism to the adverse environment formed by the algae blooms gathered, and is helpful to reduce the adverse effects of algal bloom, in order to give full play the purification effects of aquatic plants. In this simulation, the change of key enzymatic activity of floating plant water hyacinth was studied as the algae cells gathered at higher temperature(water temperature>25℃). The environmental effects on the water hyacinth after algae cells gathered were studied at the same time, which are helpful to reveal the deep mechanism of floating plants in shallow-water ecosystem caused the algae cells dead. The results showed that the dissolved oxygen in water in the root-zone of plant consumed quickly and became anxious in 2h after algae cells gathered. The ORP decreased to lower -100mV in 1st day. It reduced to -199.9 mV and the water became the strong oxygen-reducing environment from the 2nd day to the end of the experiment. Concentrations of MDA, SOD, POD in leaf increased quickly after algae cells gathered, and the concentrations of the enzyme concentration of experiment treatment 2 in plant leaf rose to 2.17μmol/g(FW), 266.497U/g, 1988.60U/(g·min)at the end, respectively. However, the concentration of CAT in leaf reduced quickly during the experiment, and its content reduced to 6.09U/(g·min). Also the concentration of MDA and POD in the root of the water hyacinth declined rapidly and its content reduced to 0.57μmol/g(FW) and 525.161U/(g·min), respectively. But the content of SOD and CAT in root increased to 221.71U/g and 35.10 U/(g·min)during the period of the experiment after algae cells gathered. The changes of key enzymatic activity of the water hyacinth indicated that the adverse environment, which formed the anoxia, higher salinity, and strong stress environment after the algae blooms gathered, was harmful to the plant. A longer time(>5d)under adverse environment of formed algae cells had produced irreversible damage to the plants. The strong environmental impact after the algae cells gathered and decomposed on the aquatic plant is the key factors of the death of the plant. There should be avoided the algae serious accumulation of the algae blooms and aviate the injury of the cyanobacterial blooms to the aquatic plants, and we should give full play to purify the polluted water in the ecological restoration of the engineering practice by using floating plants.
Key words:  Algae blooms gathered  environmental effects  floating plants  water hyacinth  enzymatic activity
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