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引用本文:李有志,李锡泉,张灿明,马丰丰,徐佳娈.洞庭湖湿地柳属木本植物与薹草属草本植物群落土壤与水环境特征.湖泊科学,2015,27(5):887-894. DOI:10.18307/2015.0515
LI Youzhi,LI Xiquan,ZHANG Canming,MA Fengfeng,XU Jialuan.Characteristics of soil and water environments between ligneous plants (Salix) and herbaceous plants (Carex) communities in the Lake Dongting wetlands. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(5):887-894. DOI:10.18307/2015.0515
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洞庭湖湿地柳属木本植物与薹草属草本植物群落土壤与水环境特征
李有志1,2, 李锡泉2, 张灿明2, 马丰丰2, 徐佳娈2
1.湖南农业大学生物科学技术学院, 长沙 410128;2.湖南省林业科学院, 长沙 410004
摘要:
木本与草本是植物存在的两种主要生活型,生态功能差异明显,尤其在植物被周期性洪水淹没的湿地生态系统中.为此,以洞庭湖湿地二门闸、五门闸、藕池河口、白沙大桥4个研究点的原生柳属木本植被与薹草属草本植被为研究对象,通过对枯水期土壤理化性质与汛期水流速度、水环境的对比监测,揭示两者生态防护功能的差异.对土壤粒径组成而言,在二门闸与白沙大桥2个研究点,木本与草本植物群落土壤样本之间无显著差异;而在五门闸与藕池河,与草本植物相比,木本植物导致土壤上层(0~30 cm)与下层(60~90 cm)粉粒含量降低,砂粒含量增加,中层(30~60 cm)黏粒与粉粒含量增加,砂粒含量降低.对土壤化学性质而言,木本植物总体上导致土壤有机质与全氮含量升高,而对全磷与全钾含量无显著影响.与草本植物相比,木本植物能显著减缓水流速度,提高水体氧化还原电位与溶解氧浓度,而对水温与pH值无明显影响.可见,洞庭湖湿地木本与草本植物生活型的差异,是导致二者土壤与水环境特征差别的主要原因,与草本植物相比,木本植物具有更强的生态防护功能.
关键词:  木本植物  草本植物  洞庭湖湿地  土壤理化性质  水环境
DOI:10.18307/2015.0515
分类号:
基金项目:国家林业公益性行业专项(201104065)、国家国际科技合作专项(2012DFB30030)、湖南省林业科技计划项目(XLK201409)和湖南省科技计划项目(2012WK4013,2013WK4012,2013FJ6048,2013ZK2040)联合资助.
Characteristics of soil and water environments between ligneous plants (Salix) and herbaceous plants (Carex) communities in the Lake Dongting wetlands
LI Youzhi1,2, LI Xiquan2, ZHANG Canming2, MA Fengfeng2, XU Jialuan2
1.College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, P. R. China;2.Hunan Academy of Forestry, Changsha 410004, P. R. China
Abstract:
The functions of ligneous and herbaceous plants were different due to their differences in life forms, especially in wetland ecosystems in which plants were inundated by periodic flooding. In this study, two native plants of ligneous(Salix) and herbaceous (Carex) at four areas (Ermenzha, Wumenzha, Ouchihekou and Baishadaqiao) in the Lake Dongting wetlands were selected as the study objects. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil in dry seasons, and flow velocity and water environments in flood seasons were investigated. In Ermenzha and Baishadaqiao, the compositions of soil particle-size were not significantly different between ligneous and herbaceous plant areas. However, in Wumenzha and Ouchihekou, sediments in ligneous plant area had a lower percentage of silt but a higher percentage of sand in topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (60-90 cm), and a lower percentage of sand but higher clay and silt in medium soil (30-60 cm) compared to sediments from the herbaceous plant areas. For soil chemical characteristics, ligneous plants were benefited to increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents compared with that of herbaceous plants. Total phosphorus and total potassium from the sediments were not different between the two vegetation types. Ligneous plant areas had created lower flow velocity, higher water redox potential and higher dissolved oxygen content compared with herbaceous plant areas. However, there was no difference in water temperature and pH values between the two vegetation type areas. These data indicated that great differences in life forms contributed to different ecological functions between the two vegetation types: higher in ligneous plant areas and lower in herbaceous plant areas.
Key words:  Ligneous plants  herbaceous plants  Lake Dongting wetlands  physical and chemical characteristics of soil  water environments
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