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引用本文:范成新.太湖湖泛形成研究进展与展望.湖泊科学,2015,27(4):553-566. DOI:10.18307/2015.0401
FAN Chengxin.Progress and prospect in formation of black bloom in Lake Taihu: A review. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(4):553-566. DOI:10.18307/2015.0401
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太湖湖泛形成研究进展与展望
范成新
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
回顾近些年对太湖湖泛形成的研究进展,参考国外关于黑斑和缺氧现象的相关研究成果,重点从湖泛的感官特征与描述、缺氧与污染效应、湖泛形成的物质和气象条件,以及微生物和底泥作用等方面,进行了系统综述,总结出湖泛发生条件与生消过程.从基本属性方面,归纳出湖泛是指在适当的气象和地形等条件下,富营养湖泊局部水域因长时间聚积大量藻体或水草等生物质,在微生物和底泥参与下,形成边界可辨、散发恶臭的可移动黑色水团,并导致水质恶化和一些生物死亡的极端污染现象的定义.文章最后从湖泛研究的新技术、新手段,沉积物有效成分提供机制,湖泛发生的关键参数阈值确定,以及致黑致臭物稳定性机制等方面,对未来发展进行了展望.
关键词:  湖泛  湖泊缺氧  形成条件  生物质  沉积物作用  生消过程  太湖
DOI:10.18307/2015.0401
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(50979102)和江苏省太湖水污染治理专项(TH2013214)联合资助.
Progress and prospect in formation of black bloom in Lake Taihu: A review
FAN Chengxin
State Key Laboratory of Lake Sciences and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China
Abstract:
This paper reviews studies on formation of the black bloom in Lake Taihu in recent years, with reference to abroad relevant research results about the phenomenon of black spots and hypoxia. A comprehensive summarization focuses on the sensory characteristics and description of the black bloom, the hypoxia and pollution effect, the material and meteorological factors, the microbial and sediment role, the genetic conditions and formation-disappearing processes and so on. We can conclude that the black bloom and its definition are induced from the basic properties, under appropriate weather and terrain conditions, with large amounts of algae or aquatic macrophyte accumulated in local waters for a long time. With interactions of microorganisms and sediments, the accumulated mass can form border distinguishable, removable black stinky, and can led to phenomena of extreme pollution, which result in water quality deterioration and some biological death. Finally, potential future development is proposed in terms of new technologies and new means, e.g. supplying mechanism of active ingredients from sediment,threshold determination of key parameters, stability mechanism of blackening and odor-causing substances.
Key words:  Black bloom  lake hypoxia  formation conditions  biomass material  sediment role  formation-disappearing processes  Lake Taihu
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