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引用本文:严平川,王军,肖贵清,毕永红.江汉平原湖群藻相特征及其环境状况评价.湖泊科学,2015,27(2):297-304. DOI:10.18307/2015.0214
YAN Pingchuan,WANG Jun,XIAO Guiqing,BI Yonghong.Characteristics of phytoplankton community and its relationship with water environment in lakes from the Jianghan Plain. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(2):297-304. DOI:10.18307/2015.0214
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江汉平原湖群藻相特征及其环境状况评价
严平川1, 王军1, 肖贵清2, 毕永红3
1.湖北省荆州市水文水资源勘测局, 荆州 434000;2.湖北省水文水资源局, 武汉 430071;3.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 中国科学院藻类生物学重点实验室, 武汉 430072
摘要:
于2011年4月2012年5月丰、平、枯3个水期对江汉平原水面面积为10km2以上的22个湖泊进行了水质和藻类同步监测.结果显示:江汉平原主要湖泊中鉴定出藻类7门100属191种(亚种、变种),其中蓝藻门17属29种,绿藻门45属99种,硅藻门26属40种,隐藻门2属5种,裸藻门4属9种,甲藻门3属5种,金藻门3属4种;全年平均藻细胞丰度为0.93×106~84.18×106cells/L,细胞丰度以蓝藻门最高(50.65%),其次是绿藻门(29.56%),再次是硅藻门(12.30%)、隐藻门(6.19%)、裸藻门(0.56%)、甲藻门(0.39%)和金藻门(0.35%);丰水期生物量显著高于平水期和枯水期,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数年均值在1.44~2.10之间,丰水期的多样性指数略高于其他水期;藻类种类组成及优势种有明显的季节变化和空间差异.依据藻相特征的PCA分析将22个湖泊分为4个类群,不同类群具有显著不同的环境状况,氮磷营养负荷、水质状况和开发利用程度的不同是导致湖泊分化的内在原因;研究结果显示,江汉平原湖群总体上属于轻度污染状况,水体主要是中营养状态,丰水期与枯水期的湖泊生态环境状况具有显著差异;以藻相特征判断22个湖泊存在明显的时空异质性,部分湖泊因过度开发利用存在严重的富营养化风险;基于湖泊生态状况的显著时空异质性,对江汉平原湖群的管理应"因湖而异"制订科学合理的方法.
关键词:  藻相特征  富营养化  湖泊  江汉平原
DOI:10.18307/2015.0214
分类号:
基金项目:第一次全国水利普查项目资助.
Characteristics of phytoplankton community and its relationship with water environment in lakes from the Jianghan Plain
YAN Pingchuan1, WANG Jun1, XIAO Guiqing2, BI Yonghong3
1.Jingzhou Survey Bureau of Hydrology Resources, Jingzhou 434000, P. R. China;2.Hubei Survey Bureau of Hydrology Resources, Wuhan 430071, P. R. China;3.Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China
Abstract:
Phytoplankton is an important composition of aquatic ecosystem, its community structure and function is always adaptable to water environment and vary with the changes of water environment.The characteristics of phytoplankton community structure could be used as an important index in the assessment of water quality.IIn order to understand the change of water environment in the 22 lakes from the Jianghan Plain, phytoplankton communities and water quality were investigated from April, 2011 to May, 2012. 191 taxa belonging to 7 divisions and 100 genera were identified.Among them, 29 belonged to Cyanophyta, 99 belonged to Chlorophyta, and 40 belonged to Bacillariophyta.The annual mean cell abundance was 0.93×106-84.18×106cells/L, the relative abundance of different divisions indicated that Cyanophyta is the highest(occupied 50.65%), followed by Chlorophyta(29.56%), Bacillariophyta(12.30%), Cryptophyta(6.19%), Euglenophyta(0.56%), Pyrrophyta(0.39%) and Chrysophyta(0.35%).The annual mean of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.44-2.10, with highest value in the flood season.Algal species and the dominant species showed the significant difference in the spatio-temporal distribution.The 22 lakes were divided into 4 groups according to PCA analysis.Characteristics of phytoplankton community and the different conditions, such as the nutrient loading, water quality and the exploitation extent were the reasons for the further polarize in the 22 lakes.It was concluded that the significant spatio-temporal heterogeneous was found in the lakes from the Jianghan Plain, and some lakes faced serious eutrophication due to the over-exploitation.Some lake-specific measurements should be taken for the lake management.
Key words:  Phytoplankton characteristics  eutrophication  lake  Jianghan Plain
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