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引用本文:李根保,李林,潘珉,谢志才,李宗逊,肖邦定,刘贵华,陈静,宋立荣.滇池生态系统退化成因、格局特征与分区分步恢复策略.湖泊科学,2014,26(4):485-496. DOI:10.18307/2014.0401
LI Genbao,LI Lin,PAN Min,XIE Zhicai,LI Zongxun,XIAO Bangding,LIU Guihua,CHEN Jing,SONG Lirong.The degradation cause and pattern characteristics of Lake Dianchi ecosystem and new restoration strategy of ecoregion and step-by-step implementation. J. Lake Sci.2014,26(4):485-496. DOI:10.18307/2014.0401
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滇池生态系统退化成因、格局特征与分区分步恢复策略
李根保1, 李林1, 潘珉2, 谢志才1, 李宗逊3, 肖邦定1, 刘贵华4, 陈静5, 宋立荣1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072;2.昆明市滇池生态研究所, 昆明 650228;3.昆明市环境科学研究院, 昆明 650032;4.中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074;5.云南省环境科学研究院, 昆明 650034
摘要:
选取生态系统中重要的组成成份:浮游植物、底栖动物、水生植物的历史演变和现在分布状况数据,结合水质变化情况,揭示了滇池生态系统退化原因:在外因上,污染物持续输入以及围湖造田、直立堤岸和水量交换缓慢等外力干扰加剧系统组分失衡是直接原因;在内因上,由于滇池所处的地理位置、气候等原因,蓝藻生物量对营养盐增加的响应远高于其他湖泊(太湖、巢湖),草型向藻型湖泊的转换进程更快;与太湖和东湖的生态系统比较,高原湖泊滇池生态系统相对脆弱,如物种的同域分化、窄生态位,导致系统的稳定性差、自我修复能力弱.通过对滇池生态格局特征、湖岸带结构的分析,将滇池划分为5个生态区:草海重污染区、藻类聚集区、沉水植被残存区、近岸带受损区和水生植被受损区,并提出"五区三步,南北并进,重点突破,治理与修复相结合"的滇池生态系统分区分步治理的新策略和"南部优先恢复;北部控藻治污;西部自然保护;东部外围突破"的总体方案.
关键词:  滇池  退化成因  格局特征  生态分区  恢复策略
DOI:10.18307/2014.0401
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2008ZX07102-005)资助
The degradation cause and pattern characteristics of Lake Dianchi ecosystem and new restoration strategy of ecoregion and step-by-step implementation
LI Genbao1, LI Lin1, PAN Min2, XIE Zhicai1, LI Zongxun3, XIAO Bangding1, LIU Guihua4, CHEN Jing5, SONG Lirong1
1.State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;2.The Ecology Institute of Lake Dianchi, Kunming 650228, P. R. China;3.Kunming Institute of Environmental Science, Kunming 650032, P. R. China;4.Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, P. R. China;5.Yunnan Institute of Environmental Science, Kunming 650034, P. R. China
Abstract:
Combined with water quality changes, this paper analysed historical evolution data of phytoplankton, benthic animals, aquatic plants, important composition of ecological systems in Lake Dianchi, and revealed the reasons of degraded ecosystem:the direct cause is disturbances associated with sustained pollutant input, reclaiming land from the lake, building erect breakwater and slow water exchange. Because of Lake Dianchi's geographical location, climate and other reasons, the response of cyanobacterial biomass to nutrient increase is far higher than that of the other lakes(Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu), which accelerating the shift of macrophytic lake to algal lake; Compared with the ecological system of Lake Taihu and East Lake, Lake Dianchi plateau lake ecosystem is relatively fragile, such as species of sympatric speciation, narrow niche, resulting in poor stability, weak ability of ecosystem recovery. Based on the analysis of ecological pattern, lakeside structure, Lake Dianchi was divided into five ecoregions:heavy pollution region in Lake Caohai, algae accumulation region, aquatic submerged plants protection region, damaged lakeside region and aquatic vegetation damaged region. And then, we proposed a new restoration strategy of ecoregion and step-by-step implementation for the Lake Dianchi, and designed general scheme of the"Southern priority restoration; northern blooming algae and pollution control; western natural protection; eastern periphery breakthrough".
Key words:  Lake Dianchi  degradation cause  pattern characteristics  ecoregion  restoration strategy
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