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陈小华,李小平,程曦,王菲菲,陈无歧.太湖流域典型中小型湖泊富营养化演变分析(1991-2010年).湖泊科学,2013,25(6):846-853. DOI:10.18307/2013.0608
CHEN Xiaohua,LI Xiaoping,Cheng Xi,WANG Feifei,CHEN Wuqi.Eutrophication evolution of typical small and medium-sized lakes in Lake Taihu basin (1991 2010). J. Lake Sci.2013,25(6):846-853. DOI:10.18307/2013.0608
太湖流域典型中小型湖泊富营养化演变分析(1991-2010年)
Eutrophication evolution of typical small and medium-sized lakes in Lake Taihu basin (1991 2010)
投稿时间:2012-11-30  修订日期:2013-04-23
DOI:10.18307/2013.0608
中文关键词: 富营养化  演变过程  中小型湖泊  太湖流域
Keywords: Eutrophication  evolution process  small and medium-sized lakes  Lake Taihu basin
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2009ZX07106-001-001)资助
作者单位E-mail
陈小华 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062;上海市环境科学研究院, 上海 200233  
李小平 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062 lixp_2008@hotmail.com 
程曦 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062;上海市环境科学研究院, 上海 200233  
王菲菲 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062  
陈无歧 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062  
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中文摘要:
      通过分析太湖流域的中小型湖泊富营养化指标近20年的变化趋势,探讨流域富营养化特征的总体演变趋势.从全流域看,总氮浓度在近20年里呈稳中略降的趋势;而总磷浓度在近20年里有较明显上升趋势;作为营养物上升的直接响应指标叶绿素a呈快速上升趋势,平均值从1991年的7.0μg/L上升至2010年的27.5μg/L,20年间上升了近3倍,叶绿素a数据离散程度出现大幅上升,标准差从1991年的1.25μg/L上升至2010年的19.06μg/L,说明各湖富营养化程度的空间分异性在加大,藻华风险增加;透明度在近20年中虽有波动,但整体仍呈下降趋势.综合营养状态指数(TLIc)计算结果显示,近20年过水型湖泊淀山湖和昆承湖的TLIc指数明显高于封闭型湖泊水源地尚湖和傀儡湖.典型过水型湖泊(淀山湖)、封闭型湖泊水源地(尚湖和傀儡湖)以及典型的渔业生产型湖泊(长荡湖)的富营养化演变过程有所差异,主要受湖泊本身自然属性、污染控制强度、管理模式、功能定位等影响.
Abstract:
      The eutrophication evolution process and characteristics of typical small and medium-sized lakes in Lake Taihu basin in the recent 20 years were investigated.Results showed that total nitrogen concentration exhibited a slow downward trend,while total phosphorus concentration showed upward trend during the past 20 years.In response to this,the algae biomass expressed as chlorophyll-a increased gradually and the average transparency (secchi depth) decreased totally.The average chlorophyll-a concentration had increased more than three times since 1991.Standard deviation of chlorophyll-a increased from 1.25 μg/L in 1991 to 19.06 μg/L in 2010,indicating that spatial heterogeneity of eutrophication and algae bloom occurred more frequently.Different types of lakes varied in the eutrophication process.It was not only controlled by nutrient input,but also by its own characteristics of the lake.The calculated Comprehensive Nutrition State Index showed that eutrophication status of Lake Dianshan and Lake Kuncheng were slightly eutrophic but more serious than Lake Shanghu and Lake Kuilei,which were mesotrophic.Designated use and water resource management model of lakes were the important factors in the lake eutrophication.Lake Shanghu and Lake Kuilei,which are under strict management as enclosed drinking water resource area,had stable lower nutrient concentrations.As a typical open lake,Lake Dianshan was classified as middle-eutrophicated TN and TP concentrations of which were increasingly high.As a typical fish-culture type lake,eutrophication problem was becoming more serious due to high-density fish culture in the past 20 years in Lake Changdang,with higher nutrient concentration,higher chlorophyll-a,and lower transparency.
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