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引用本文:孟祥雨,宋学宏,陈桂娟,冯育青,吴林坤,沈振华.利用湖泊内源性饵料饲喂中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)的养殖与净水效应.湖泊科学,2013,25(5):723-728. DOI:10.18307/2013.0514
MENG Xiangyu,SONG Xuehong,CHEN Guijuan,FENG Yuqing,WU Linkun,SHEN Zhenhua.Utilization of natural feed resources in a macrophyte-dominated lake for aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and its purification effects on water environment. J. Lake Sci.2013,25(5):723-728. DOI:10.18307/2013.0514
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利用湖泊内源性饵料饲喂中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)的养殖与净水效应
孟祥雨1, 宋学宏1, 陈桂娟2, 冯育青2, 吴林坤3, 沈振华3
1.苏州大学基础医学与生物科学学院, 苏州 215123;2.苏州市农业委员会, 苏州 215128;3.江苏省太湖渔业管理委员会, 苏州 215004
摘要:
在东太湖网围养殖区进行不同放养密度(3000、6000、9000只/hm2)饲喂太湖水草与螺蛳的中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)养殖实验,各处理组均设投喂鱼肉与玉米等外源性饵料的对照,以获得不同养殖模式对中华绒螯蟹生长、品质及养殖水环境的影响,以及利用浅水草型湖泊内源性饵料养殖中华绒螯蟹的适宜放养密度.结果表明,规格和增肉倍数虽然均显著小于相同养殖密度下投喂外源性饵料的对照组,但是各实验组商品蟹体重均能达到150 g;低密度养殖组(3000只/hm2)的产量与对照组无显著差异,其余两组显著低于对照组;而低密度养殖组的河蟹回捕率显著低于对照组,其余两组则无显著差异.实验养殖区水质状况优于投喂外源性饵料的对照区,其TP含量显著低于对照区,投喂外源性饵料会增加水体N、P含量,导致水体富营养化.投喂太湖水草与螺蛳等内源性饵料进行中华绒螯蟹养殖不但可以有效地抑制浅水湖泊水草的疯长,还可通过中华绒螯蟹收获从水体输出N、P营养盐,起到净化水质的作用.不同密度养殖的生态与经济效益对比结果显示,利用草型湖泊内源性饵料养殖中华绒螯蟹的适宜放养密度为6000只/hm2左右.
关键词:  中华绒螯蟹  放养密度  草型湖泊  净水效应  太湖
DOI:10.18307/2013.0514
分类号:
基金项目:江苏省社会发展项目(BS2007031);苏州市社会发展项目(SS201012)联合资助
Utilization of natural feed resources in a macrophyte-dominated lake for aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and its purification effects on water environment
MENG Xiangyu1, SONG Xuehong1, CHEN Guijuan2, FENG Yuqing2, WU Linkun3, SHEN Zhenhua3
1.School of Biology and Basic Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P. R. China;2.Suzhou Agricultural Commission, Suzhou 215128, P. R. China;3.Taihu Lake Fishery Management Commission of Jiangsu Province, Suzhou 215004, P. R. China
Abstract:
To explore the effects of different culture models on growth performance and quality of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis),and the aquaculture water environment,and to estimate the optimum stocking density of crab culture by using natural feed resources in a shallow macrophyte-dominated lake,the Chinese mitten crabs have been raised at different stocking densities as 3000,6000,9000 ind./ha,respectively,in net-pen aquaculture area in the East Lake Taihu by feeding aquatic weeds and snails, and/or by feeding exogenous fish and corn as control for each treatment.The results showed that all crabs from each treatment group achieved 150 g in body weight,but their body size and flesh increment were significantly lower than those of control group fed with exogenous diets.There was no significant difference in yield between the lowest density group (3000 ind./ha) and its control group,while the yields in the other two groups were significantly lower than their control groups.Moreover,the recapture rate of the lowest density group was significantly lower than its control group,while that of the other two higher density groups didn't show difference when compared with their control groups.Results also indicated that the water quality in the treatment area was better than that in the control area with exogenous feed,and the TP contents were significantly lower.It was revealed that exogenous feeding might be responsible for higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquaculture water and water eutrophication.On the contrary,feeding natural aquatic weeds and snails could effectively handle the overgrowth of hydrophytes.Meanwhile,nutrient of nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from aquaculture water by harvesting the Chinese mitten crabs,which will play an effective role both on water purification and aquatic ecological restoration.When both ecological effects and economic benefits were considered, it is suggested that the optimum stocking density of Chinese mitten crab aquaculture in shallow macrophyte-dominated lakes should be 6000 ind./ha when natural feed resources are utilized.
Key words:  Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  stocking density  macrophyte-dominated lake  water purification effects  Lake Taihu
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