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引用本文:王志杰,李畅游,张生,贾克力,李卫平.基于水平衡模型的呼伦湖湖泊水量变化.湖泊科学,2012,24(5):667-674. DOI:10.18307/2012.0504
WANG Zhijie,LI Changyou,ZHANG Sheng,JIA Keli,LI Weiping.Hydrological changes in Lake Hulun based on water balance model. J. Lake Sci.2012,24(5):667-674. DOI:10.18307/2012.0504
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基于水平衡模型的呼伦湖湖泊水量变化
王志杰1, 李畅游1, 张生1, 贾克力1, 李卫平2
1.内蒙古农业大学水利与土木建筑工程学院, 呼和浩特 010018;2.内蒙古科技大学能源与环境学院, 包头 014010
摘要:
针对北方寒旱区呼伦湖水位下降、水面萎缩的现象,根据气候特征,利用月水量平衡模型探究湖泊水文过程并揭示其变化规律.在此基础上,利用不同气候条件下各水平衡项对于湖泊水位的影响程度确定水位升降的直接原因.基于1963-1980年间水位的实测数据,根据水量平衡原理及其他辅助计算判断出湖泊与周边区域存在着地下水的交换,且具有一定的规律性,即历年11月至次年3月期间的累积降雪融化渗入土壤中形成浅层径流补给湖泊,而7、8月份湖泊补给周边草原.基于以上规律,根据周边坡面汇流、地下水与湖泊交换量的年内变化特征,利用水平衡方程式推算湖泊1981-2008年逐月水位变化,并与其他研究成果比较,吻合度较高.不同气候条件下,径流量对于湖泊水位的影响程度最为突出,是水位变化的主控因子.
关键词:  水量平衡模型  水位模拟  呼伦湖
DOI:10.18307/2012.0504
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51069007,50969005,40901262);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2010MS0713,2010MS0611);内蒙古自治区水利厅重点支持项目(20080105);内蒙古教育厅科研项目(NJ09051)联合资助
Hydrological changes in Lake Hulun based on water balance model
WANG Zhijie1, LI Changyou1, ZHANG Sheng1, JIA Keli1, LI Weiping2
1.Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, P. R. China;2.School of Environment and Energy Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010, P. R. China
Abstract:
In order to study the shrinkage of the Lake Hulun, monthly water balance model was used to analyze the characteristics and causes of water changes. Based on available continuous lake level monitoring data from 1963 to 1980, there are exchange between groundwater of surrounding areas and lake water according to the principle of water balance and other auxiliary calculations. The exchange has a certain regularity, which is the accumulated snow of the period from November to March when snows begin to melt and then infiltrate the soil with the increase of temperature. This part of water recharges the lake in the form of subsurface flow in spring, which causes the lake water level increases slightly. The lake will recharge the surrounding prairie through strong evaporation after July. On the basis of above observations, the unknown items, i. e. the exchange and overland flow, were taken into balance equation as a constant to simulate water level. There is high goodness of fit between simulated values and related research results. Finally, the influence of precipitation, runoff and evaporation under different climate scenarios on lake water level were used to determine the cause of the drastic decrease of the lake level. The results show that decline of the lake water level after 2000 is mainly due to the sharp drop of river runoff.
Key words:  Water balance model  simulation of lake water level  Lake Hulun
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