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引用本文:赖锡军,姜加虎,黄群.三峡工程蓄水对洞庭湖水情的影响格局及其作用机制.湖泊科学,2012,24(2):178-184. DOI:10.18307/2012.0202
LAI Xijun,JIANG Jiahu,HUANG Qun.Pattern of impoundment effects and influencing mechanism of Three Gorges Project on water regime of Lake Dongting. J. Lake Sci.2012,24(2):178-184. DOI:10.18307/2012.0202
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三峡工程蓄水对洞庭湖水情的影响格局及其作用机制
赖锡军, 姜加虎, 黄群
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
三峡工程建成投入运行后,汛末蓄水将使坝下河湖水情发生变化,长江中下游秋季来水减少成为常态.为客观分析三峡蓄水对洞庭湖水情的影响分量、空间格局及其作用机制,选取三峡工程典型的蓄水过程,运用长江中游江湖耦合水动力学模型计算了因上游来水变化引起的洞庭湖水情时空变化.结果表明:1)三峡汛末蓄水对洞庭湖水位影响具有明显的"北高南低,东强西弱"的格局,即东洞庭湖最为显著、南洞庭湖东部和西洞庭湖北部次之,南洞庭湖西部和西洞庭湖南部最小.2)洲滩湿地受蓄水影响最明显的主要为东洞庭湖、南洞庭湖和湖泊洪道两侧的条带状洲滩.3)三峡蓄水对洞庭湖水位的影响机制有二:长江干流水位快速消落加速湖泊水体下泄以及削减长江三口分流补给湖泊的水量.
关键词:  三峡工程  蓄水  水情  淹水历时  水动力学模型  洞庭湖
DOI:10.18307/2012.0202
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2012CB417000);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX1-YW-08-01);国家自然科学基金项目(41071021)联合资助
Pattern of impoundment effects and influencing mechanism of Three Gorges Project on water regime of Lake Dongting
LAI Xijun, JIANG Jiahu, HUANG Qun
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
With the operation of Three Gorges Project(TGP), water regime of rivers and lakes downstream of the dam changed with the reservoir regulation. The lowering of water level becomes normal after flood season compared with the years before TGP. Here, the water storage of TGP in 2006 was selected as a case to quantitatively investigate the effects of TGP on water regime of Lake Dongting. We applied the coupled hydrodynamic analysis model for the middle Yangtze River to compute the variation of water regime induced by the water storage. During impoundment, the reduction of the water level and discharge are 1.32 m and 466 m3/s, respectively, at Chenglingji, the outlet of Lake Dongting. The bottomlands inside the Lake Dongting are exposed ahead of time and the lake area with over 5 inundation days reach to 287 km2. Results also indicate that:1) the impact of TGP on water regime varied with locations:east Lake Dongting takes the first place, the east of South Lake Dongting and the north of West Lake Dongting second, and the west of South Lake Dongting and the south of West Lake Dongting third. 2) The bottomlands which strongly affected by the impoundment are mainly located at East Lake Dongting, South Lake Dongting and the both sides of flood ways. 3) Two influencing mechanisms on water regime are identified:one is the increase of the lake discharge induced by the rapid drawdown of the mainstream of the Yangtze River; the other is the reduction of inflow from the Yangtze River via Sankou distributary channels.
Key words:  Three Gorges Project  impoundment  water regime  inundation duration  hydrodynamic model  Lake Dongting
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