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引用本文:谢贵娟,张建平,汤祥明,蔡永萍,高光.博斯腾湖水质现状(2010-2011年)及近50年来演变趋势.湖泊科学,2011,23(6):837-846. DOI:10.18307/2011.0603
XIE Guijuan,ZHANG Jianping,TANG Xiangming,CAI Yongping,GAO Guang.Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of water quality(2010-2011) and succession patterns in Lake Bosten during the past 50 years. J. Lake Sci.2011,23(6):837-846. DOI:10.18307/2011.0603
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博斯腾湖水质现状(2010-2011年)及近50年来演变趋势
谢贵娟1,2, 张建平3, 汤祥明2, 蔡永萍1, 高光2
1.安徽农业大学生命科学学院, 合肥 230036;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;3.新疆巴音郭楞蒙古自治州环境监测站, 库尔勒 841000
摘要:
博斯腾湖(简称博湖)6个采样点周年(2010年6月-2011年6月)水质调查分析表明, 博湖水质空间差异明显, 但不同样点水质月变化无一致趋势.大湖区西北角水域水质最差;开都河入湖处水质月变化幅度大, 水质相对较好;中东部水域水质处于中间水平.小湖区喇嘛湖水质最好, 介于Ⅰ-Ⅲ级之间;北闸附近的湖沼湿地, 水质差, 多为V类和劣V类.博湖主要污染物是盐分、总氮、硫酸盐和氯化物.水体总体营养水平为中营养, 部分时段达到了轻度富营养水平.农业面源污染、水文、湖流及水生植物等, 是造成博湖水质时空差异的主要原因.近50年来博湖水质演变过程表明, 自1970s以来, 博湖已经由新疆最大的淡水湖转变为微咸水湖.博湖水质咸化可以分为快速升高-缓慢下降-再升高三个阶段.伴随着湖水咸水, 其它污染物浓度也快速升高.总体而言, 博湖水质变化受自然和人为两种因素制约, 近十年来, 人为因素加剧了博湖的咸化和富营养化。
关键词:  博斯腾湖  水质  咸化  富营养化  人类活动
DOI:10.18307/2011.0603
分类号:
基金项目:环保公益性行业科研专项项目(200909048);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2009ZX07106-004)联合资助
Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of water quality(2010-2011) and succession patterns in Lake Bosten during the past 50 years
XIE Guijuan1,2, ZHANG Jianping3, TANG Xiangming2, CAI Yongping1, GAO Guang2
1.School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, P.R.China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China;3.Environmental Monitor Station of Environmental Protection Bureau of Bayingolin Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture, Korle 841000, P.R.China
Abstract:
To investigate the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of water quality in Lake Bosten, water qualities of six stations were mo-nitored from June 2010 to June 2011.The results showed that water qualities were distinctly different among stations, and monthly variations of water quality among stations were not uniform.In the open lake area of Lake Bosten:the water quality was the worst in northwest;whereas water quality in the river mouth of Kaidu River was the best, though changed greatly from month to month.In the less-open lake area of Lake Bosten:water quality was the best in Lake Lama(GradeⅠto Ⅲ);water quality in lake wetlands was the worst (Grade Ⅴ or even worse).The main pollutants in Lake Bosten were salinity, total nitrogen, sulfate and chloride.In general, the trophic level of Lake Bosten is mesotrophic, and sometimes it reaches light eutrophic.Agricultural non-point source pollutions, hydrology, lake currents and aquatic plants were the main factors attributed to the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of water quality in Lake Bosten.Analysis of the variation of water quality in the past 50 years shows that Lake Bosten has converted from the largest inland freshwater lake to a brackish lake since 1970s.The process of salinization could be divided three stages:rapid rise, slow decline and increase again.Accompanied with the lake salinization, concentrations of other pollutants increased rapidly as well.Overall, the variation of water quality in Lake Bosten is controlled by natural factors and human factors.In recent decades human activities have exacerbated the salinization and eutrophication of Lake Bosten.
Key words:  Lake Bosten  water quality  salinization  eutrophication  human activities
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