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引用本文:张淑霞,董云仙,夏峰.湖泊生态系统的水鸟监测意义.湖泊科学,2011,23(2):155-162. DOI:10.18307/2011.0201
ZHANG Shuxia,DONG Yunxian,XIA Feng.Significance of waterbird monitoring in lake ecosystems. J. Lake Sci.2011,23(2):155-162. DOI:10.18307/2011.0201
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湖泊生态系统的水鸟监测意义
张淑霞, 董云仙, 夏峰
云南省环境科学研究院, 昆明 650034
摘要:
水鸟的多样性及其变化趋势是保护水鸟必需的信息, 也是其柄息湿地环境质量的指示因子之一.本文综述了水鸟与湖泊生态系统关系的研究成果, 认为水鸟的物种多样性与丰富度可以快速反映湖泊的水生植物、鱼类的生物量和湖泊水位、营养状况的变化, 集群繁殖的食鱼水鸟可用于湖泊生态系统中持久性有毒化学污染物的生态监测;同时阐述了水鸟通过取食水生植物、排出粪便对湖泊生态系统产生的主要影响, 并在湖泊生态系统管理中给出相应建议.为了深入理解湖泊生态系统的多稳态转变机制和全面反映受污染湖泊的恢复进程, 建议在我国富营养湖泊的恢复过程中, 应将水鸟与湖泊生态系统其它成分作为一个整体进行监测, 定量化研究水鸟与湖泊水生植物、鱼类和水环境之间的关系。
关键词:  水鸟  浅水湖泊  指示生物  大型水生植物  生态系统监测
DOI:10.18307/2011.0201
分类号:
基金项目:云南省科技厅社会发展科技计划项目(2009CA002)资助
Significance of waterbird monitoring in lake ecosystems
ZHANG Shuxia, DONG Yunxian, XIA Feng
Yunnan Institute of Environment Sciences, Kunming 650034, P.R.China
Abstract:
Statistics on the status and trends in numbers of waterbirds are necessary for the conservation of their wetland habitats.Waterbirds are also considered as one of the indicators of habitat quality of wetlands.We reviewed the studies on the ecological relationships between waterbirds and lake ecosystems, and found that abundance and species richness of waterbirds could respond quickly to the biomass change of macrophytes and fishes, as well as variation of water level, trophic status of lakes, and colonial fish-eating birds could be used to monitor the level of persistent toxic substances in lakes.In turn, waterbirds could impose a significant impact to lakes through grazing on aquatic vegetation, and nutrient load by faecal deposition.In addition, management of lake ecosystems related to waterbirds was suggested accordingly.In order to have a better understanding of the factors that lead to switches between multiple stable states in eutrophic lakes, and on the restoration progress eutrophic lakes, waterbirds should be incorporated into monitoring of eutrophic lakes in the process of lake restoration in China, and additional studies to quantify the relationships between waterbirds and macrophytes, fish and environmental variables of lakes are necessary.
Key words:  Waterbirds  shallow lakes  indicator species  macrophytes  ecosystem monitoring
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