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引用本文:邴海健,吴艳宏,刘恩峰,羊向东.长江中下游不同湖泊沉积物中重金属污染物的累积及其潜在生态风险评价.湖泊科学,2010,22(5):675-683. DOI:10.18307/2010.0508
BING Haijian,WU Yanhong,LIU Enfeng,YANG Xiangdong.The accumulation and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the sediment of different lakes within the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. J. Lake Sci.2010,22(5):675-683. DOI:10.18307/2010.0508
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长江中下游不同湖泊沉积物中重金属污染物的累积及其潜在生态风险评价
邴海健1,2, 吴艳宏1, 刘恩峰1, 羊向东1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
摘要:
利用富集因子和Hakanson潜在生态风险指数法, 结合年代学结果, 对长江中下游湖泊太白湖、龙感湖、巢湖和西氿沉积物中重金属元素Co、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn的富集程度进行了评价, 并比较分析了上述重金属的潜在生态风险.结果表明, 太白湖和龙感湖沉积物中各重金属富集程度均较低;巢湖沉积物中Co、Cr、Ni的富集程度接近中等水平, 而Cu、Pb、Zn的富集已经达到中等水平;西氿沉积物中Co的富集非常低, Cr、Ni富集水平较低, Pb达到中等富集, Cu、Zn达到较高的富集水平.对4个湖泊沉积物中重金属的综合污染程度进行比较:巢湖> 西氿> 龙感湖> 太白湖.各湖泊沉积物中单一元素的潜在生态风险都较低, 但是, 根据多元素潜在生态评价指数, 各湖泊沉积物中重金属存在明显不同的潜在生态风险:巢湖> 西氿> 龙感湖> 太白湖.总体上看, 太白湖和巢湖沉积物重金属污染以及潜在生态风险自1965年以来一直在加重, 而龙感湖和西氿沉积物在表层有下降的趋势.这种差异与各个湖泊流域内人类活动的方式和强度密切相关.巢湖和西氿流域内城市化、工业化发展迅速, 人类活动导致大量重金属元素进入湖泊, 给湖泊带来明显的污染;而龙感湖和太白湖流域人类活动主要以农业活动为主, 人类活动对重金属的贡献相对较小.
关键词:  重金属  污染指标  生态风险  湖泊沉积物  长江中下游
DOI:10.18307/2010.0508
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(40772203)资助
The accumulation and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the sediment of different lakes within the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River
BING Haijian1,2, WU Yanhong1, LIU Enfeng1, YANG Xiangdong1
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
Abstract:
The concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediments of Lake Taibai, Lake Longgan, Lake Chaohu and Lake Xijiu in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, were determined. Combined with geochronology, enrichment factors and Hakanson Potential Ecological Risk Index were used to evaluate the accumulation degree and the potential ecological risk of heavv metals in the sediment. The results showed that the status of heavv metal enrichment in the sediment of Lake Taibai and Lake Longgan was in the lower level, while that of Co, Cr, Ni in the Lake Chaohu sediment was low, and Cu, Pb, Zn enrichment reached moderate level. In the sediment of Lake Xijiu, the status of heavv metal enrichment was different from heavy metals, which Co enrichment was very low, Cr and Ni enrichment was in the lower level, and Pb enrichment arrived at the moderate level, and Cu, Zn enrichment reached the higher level. The status of heavy metal contamination in the four lake sediments was ranked as Lake Chaohu> Lake Xijiu> Lake Longgan> Lake Taibai. The potential ecological risk index of single element was very low, however, based on the potential ecological risk index of multi-elements, there was obvious difference among these four lakes:Lake Chaohu> Lake Xijiu> Lake Longgan> Lake Taibai. Generally, the enrichment and potential ecological risk in the sediments of Lake Taibai and Lake Chaohu had been increasing since 1965, while those conditions in Lake Longgan and Lake Xijiu tended to decrease in the surface sed-iment, 11 of which strongly correlated with the way and intensity of human activities in the catchment areas. In the catchments of Lake Chaohu and Lake Xijiu, the development of industrialization and economy was rapid, and lots of heavv metals were discharged into lakes by human activities, which made these lakes polluted. However, the way of human activities in Lake Longgan and Lake Xi-jiu catchments wa mainly about agriculture, which contributed to a small portion of heavy metals into the sediment.
Key words:  Heavy metals  pollution index  ecological risk  lake sediment  the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River
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