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引用本文:崔瑛,张强,陈晓宏,江涛.生态需水理论与方法研究进展.湖泊科学,2010,22(4):465-480. DOI:10.18307/2010.0401
CUI Ying,ZHANG Qiang,CHEN Xiaohong,JIANG Tao.Advances in the theories and calculation methods of ecological water requirement. J. Lake Sci.2010,22(4):465-480. DOI:10.18307/2010.0401
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生态需水理论与方法研究进展
崔瑛1, 张强1,2, 陈晓宏1, 江涛1,2
1.中山大学水资源与环境系 广州 510275;2.南京水利科学研究院水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室 南京 210098
摘要:
生态需水研究是近年来国内外广泛关注的热点,涉及生态学、水文学、环境科学等多个学科.本文系统回顾了国内外生态需水的研究进展,较为全面的介绍了生态需水的概念、特征和分类,并在将区域生态需水的定量计算分为河道内和河道外两部分的基础上,总结并介绍了河道内(包括河流、河口、湖泊)和河道外(包括植被、动物、湿地、城市和回补超采地下水)生态需水的各种计算方法.特别是对国内外河流生态需水计算方法的基本思想、优缺点及其适用范围做了重点介绍,并分析了国内外计算方法存在差异的原因.通过对过去生态需水研究的总结与分析认为,我国研究目标多集中在水资源供需矛盾突出以及生态环境相对脆弱和问题严重的干旱、半干旱和季节性干旱的湿润区,且以河流生态系统的需水作为主要研究对象.但由于起步晚,在这方面的研究还不是很成熟,生态需水的概念、内涵和外延均未有统一的定义;同时,在借鉴国外生态需水各种计算方法来进行我国的生态需水研究时,应考虑是否符合我国国情以及气候水文特征,不能机械照搬.再者,笔者认为:①在考虑各种方法联系机制的前提下,对其进行合理耦合,取长补短,并进一步加强3S等新技术的应用;②加强对水资源虽相对丰沛,但由于水污染严重而存在水质性缺水的湿润地区,如华南珠江流域的生态需水研究等,将成为今后的发展方向.
关键词:  生态需水  理论与方法  研究进展
DOI:10.18307/2010.0401
分类号:
基金项目:水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室开放项目(2009491511);中山大学理工科青年教师重点培育计划项目(2009-37000-1132381);“百人计划”人才引进项目(37000-3171315);中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所前沿领域创新研究项目(CXNIGLAS200814;08SL141001-28005);国家自然科学基金重点项目(50839005)资助
Advances in the theories and calculation methods of ecological water requirement
CUI Ying1, ZHANG Qiang1,2, CHEN Xiaohong1, JIANG Tao1,2
1.Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P. R. China;2.Hydraulic Research Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources and State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China
Abstract:
Ecological waterre quirement (EWR) is one of the global foci-research subjects inenvironment alrelated field,which has aninter-relation shipwi the cology,hydrology,environment alscience,etc.This paper reviews the research advances in EWR at home and abroad,introducing the concepts,classifications and character is tics of EWR and summarizing calculating methods for EWR:in-side river course(including rivers,estuaries and lakes)and out side river course(including vegetation,animals,wetlands,cities and covering over-exploitation of groundwater).Especially the basic ideas,advantages,disadvantages and conditions interm so fpracti-cal application EWR calculation of river ecosystem arepointed out.Meanwhile,there as on sof differences between domestic and for-eign research methods are discussed.Foregoing analyses evoke some questions about the current study of EWR in China:1)a consistent and sound understanding of the concept,connotation and extension of EWR has not been obtained so far;2)great attentions should be paid to the applicability of the foreign calculation methods in China;and 3)further progress about the development and application of EWR will be promising due to:combining domestic with foreign calculation methods and reason able improvement,strengthening the application of new technologies such as 3S,enhancing there search of EWR in humid areas,where water quality-induced water shortage such as South China Pearl River Basin.
Key words:  Ecological water requirement  fundamentals and application  literature review
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