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杨桂山,马荣华,张路,姜加虎,姚书春,张民,曾海鳌.中国湖泊现状及面临的重大问题与保护策略.湖泊科学,2010,22(6):799-810. DOI:10.18307/2010.0601
YANG Guishan,MA Ronghua,ZHANG Lu,JIANG Jiahu,YAO Shuchun,ZHANG Min,ZENG Hai'ao.Lake status, major problems and protection strategy in China. J. Lake Sci.2010,22(6):799-810. DOI:10.18307/2010.0601
中国湖泊现状及面临的重大问题与保护策略
Lake status, major problems and protection strategy in China
投稿时间:2010-09-12  修订日期:2010-10-09
DOI:10.18307/2010.0601
中文关键词: 湖泊现状  中国  生态环境问题  保护策略
Keywords: Lake status  China  eco-environmental problems  protection strategy
基金项目:科技部国家科技基础性工作专项"中国湖泊水质、水量和生物资源调查"(2006FY110600)项目资助
作者单位
杨桂山 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
马荣华 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
张路 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
姜加虎 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
姚书春 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
张民 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
曾海鳌 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
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中文摘要:
      我国湖泊数量多、类型全、分布广,湖泊的形成演化不仅受流域自然环境因素及变化的影响,而且还深受人类活动的干扰,呈现出不同的区域演变特征和生态环境问题.近几十年来,我国湖泊数量、面积和分布都发生了较为显著的变化,并面临着湖泊萎缩与调蓄能力减少、水质下降与富营养化加重、生物多样性减少与生态退化、河湖水力和生态联系阻隔以及湖岸线和环湖地带过度开发等问题,引发一系列生态与环境后果,严重影响流域居民日常生活和经济的可持续发展.本文通过大量湖泊野外考察和调查,查清了我国面积大于1km2湖泊的数量、面积和分布状况,结合历史湖泊调查和相关研究资料,系统分析了近几十年我国湖泊面临的重大生态环境问题及区域特征,提出了我国湖泊保护的策略.
Abstract:
      Large numbers of lakes with different types are distributed through China. The formation and evolution of the lakes are not only influenced by natural factors in the watersheds, but also deeply disturbed by human activities, which led to different regional evolution characteristics and eco-environmental problems. In recent decades, the number, area and distribution of the lakes have undergone significant changes. Moreover, the lakes are facing many problems such as shrinkage, reduction of storage capacity, water quality decline, serious eutrophication, biodiversity decrease, ecological degradation, barrier of river and lake water and ecological contact, over-development around the shore line and the lake area, etc. These problems have triggered a series of ecological and environmental consequences, seriously affecting the daily lives of the residents and sustainable development of the economy. This paper aims to identify the number, area and distribution of the lakes in China with the area latter than lkm2, based on field survey and investigation. Combined with historical data of lake surveys and relative research results, the major ecological and environmental problems and regional characteristics of the lakes in recent decades are systematically analyzed, and the protection strategies for the lakes in China are proposed.
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