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引用本文:施炜纲,张敏莹,刘凯,徐东坡,段金荣.水工工程对长江下游渔业的胁迫与补偿.湖泊科学,2009,21(1):10-20. DOI:10.18307/2009.0102
SHI Weigang,ZHANG Minying,LIU Kai,XU Dongpo,DUAN Jinrong.Stress of hydraulic engineering on fisheries in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and compensation. J. Lake Sci.2009,21(1):10-20. DOI:10.18307/2009.0102
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水工工程对长江下游渔业的胁迫与补偿
施炜纲1,2,3, 张敏莹1,2,3, 刘凯1,2,3, 徐东坡1,2,3, 段金荣1,2,3
1.中国水产科学研究院内陆渔业环境与资源重点开放实验室, 无锡 214081;2.中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心, 无锡 214081;3.长江下游渔业资源监测站, 无锡 214081
摘要:
长江下游及河口区鱼类物种丰富,特有性高.能构成渔汛的经济品种均集中在该江段,其可捕的经济鱼类品种及渔获量为全江之首.该水域鱼类区系复杂.是长江物种多样性最为丰富的区域之一.随长江于流上水工建筑的大量建造,江湖被隔绝,洄游通道被阻断,海水的入侵、生境的破碎、水文条件的改变等导致了渔业生态功能的削弱,对下游鱼类可捕量、天然鱼类资源、物种多样性、种质资源产生了严重影响.通过对下游渔业资源特征进行了捕述,结合当前重大水工建筑:水电工程、调水工程、航道工程、大桥工程及沙石开采工程,介绍了长江水工工程的规模与现状,探讨了不同工程对鱼类环境业已显现的影响,以及对渔业生态和资源的破坏作用,剖析水工工程对渔业可能造成的潜在伤害.同时就工程规划的设计理念、渔业生态的补偿措施提出了建议,指出渔业部门应尽的责任和义务,提出了保护下游渔业资源和生态环境急待开展的科学研究任务.
关键词:  长江下游  水工建筑  渔业生态  渔业资源  影响  补偿
DOI:10.18307/2009.0102
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技基础条件平台项目“长江中下游水产种质资源标准化整理、整合与共享”(2006DKA30470-003);中央级基本科研业务费专项基金(2007JBFA05、2007JBFB06、2007JBFB07)联合资助.
Stress of hydraulic engineering on fisheries in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and compensation
SHI Weigang1,2,3, ZHANG Minying1,2,3, LIU Kai1,2,3, XU Dongpo1,2,3, DUAN Jinrong1,2,3
1.Key Laboratory of Ecological Environment and Resources of Inland Fisheries, CAFS, Wuxi 214081, P. R. China;2.Freshwater Fisheries Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, P. R. China;3.Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Fishery Resources Station, Wuxi 214081, P. R. China
Abstract:
In the Low reaches of Yangtze River and the estuary region, there are rich fish species and high autochthonous species. The economic species that has an obvious fishing season characteristic almost distributes in this area, and the species number of the economic fish and fish catchability ranked first in the whole basin. In recent years the fishery ecological function has been weakened by many factors, such as river-lake disconnection, seawater intrusion, habitat fragmentation and hydrological changes due to the hydraulic engineering, and fish catchability, natural fishery resources, species diversity and idioplasm resources were also influenced seriously. In this paper, the development and status of hydraulic engineering and characteristics of fishery resources in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River have been introduced, basing on some important hydraulic engineering, such as waterpower projects, migration engineering, navigation engineering, bridge construction, and sand digging. Existing and latent impacts of hydraulic engineering on fishery resources and fishery ecological environment have also been discussed. Suggestions on design of hydraulic engineering and compensation methods for fishery ecology have been given. Responsibilities and obligations that the fishery department should take were pointed out. At last the urgent research tasks of protection of fisheries resources and environments in lower reaches of the Yangtze River were put forward.
Key words:  Lower reaches of the Yangtze River  hydraulic engineering  fishery ecology  fishery resource  effect  expiation
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