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引用本文:苏布达,姜彤.长江流域降水极值时间序列的分布特征.湖泊科学,2008,20(1):123-128. DOI:10.18307/2008.0119
SU Buda,JIANG Tong.Distribution feature of time series of extreme precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin. J. Lake Sci.2008,20(1):123-128. DOI:10.18307/2008.0119
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长江流域降水极值时间序列的分布特征
苏布达1,2, 姜彤1,2
1.中国气象局气候研究开放实验室国家气候中心, 北京 100081;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
在1960-2005年长江流域147气象观测站汛期4-9月逐日降水资料基础上,通过计算逐站大于95th强降水及其间隔天数、小于1.27mm/d的持续天数,分析长江流域降水极值时间序列的时空分布特征,并建立概率分布模式.研究发现,长江上游四川盆地附近及中下游鄱阳湖流域东南部是汛期强降水中心,也是长江流域强降水最集中发生的地区.汛期降水强度小于1.27mm/d的天数,在上游干流、岷沱江流域、乌江上游地区为多.但此处干旱持续天数最短,干旱形式并不严重.而在金沙江上、下游,洞庭湖流域,鄱阳湖流域东南部支流及下游干流区干旱持续天数较长.长江流域大于95th强降水的间隔天数与小于1.27mm/d的干旱持续天数服从Weibull-Ⅱ型分布.分布参数变化的模式较准确的反映降水极值时间序列的时空变化特征.
关键词:  降水极值  Weibull分布  长江流域
DOI:10.18307/2008.0119
分类号:
基金项目:中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF2006-31);国家自然科学基金项目(40601017);中国科学院院长奖励基金联合资助.
Distribution feature of time series of extreme precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin
SU Buda1,2, JIANG Tong1,2
1.Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, P. R. China;2.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
Based on daily precipitation data of 147 stations in the Yangtze River Basin during the flood season (April to September)for 1960-2005, extreme high precipitation (percentile >95th) and its time gap, days with precipitation <1.27mm/d and its durationwere calculated. Accordingly, spatial distributions and temporal sequences of extreme precipitation events had been analyzed, and theprobability model was established. Research results showed that Sichuan Basin in the upper reaches and southeastern Lake PoyangCatchment in the mid-lower reaches were the high precipitation center of the Yangtze River Basin with centralized extreme event.Total number of days with precipitation <1.27mm/d is more in the mainstream section, Minjiang-Tuojiang Catchment and upperWujiang Catchment than any other area of the Yangtze River Basin. However, due to shorter lasting period of events with < 1.27mm/d,it did not create serious drought situation in theses areas. Whereas, areas in the upper and lower Jinshajiang(upper reaches of theYangtze River) Catchment, Lake Dongting Catchment, southeastern Lake Poyang Catchment, and lower main stream section, weremore likely to be stricken by prolonged events with <1.27mm/d and droughts caused. By applying Weibull model with the method ofmaximum likelihood estimator on the time gap of extreme high precipitation and lasting period of <1.27mm/d, it was proved thatWeibull-Ⅱ can simulate well the probability distribution of timing of extreme precipitation events over the Yangtze River Basin.Changes of Weibull-Ⅱ parameter can reflect well the spatial and temporal variation of timing of extreme precipitation events.
Key words:  Extreme precipitation  Weibull distribution  Yangtze River Basin
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