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引用本文:陈开宁,包先明,史龙新,陈伟民,兰策介,许海,胡洪云.太湖五里湖生态重建示范工程—大型围隔试验.湖泊科学,2006,18(2):139-149. DOI:10.18307/2006.0207
CHEN Kaining,BAG Xianmin,SHI Longxin,CHEN Weimin,LAN Cejie,XU Hai,HU Hongyun.Ecological restoration engineering in Lake Wuli, Lake Taihu:a large enclosure experiment. J. Lake Sci.2006,18(2):139-149. DOI:10.18307/2006.0207
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太湖五里湖生态重建示范工程—大型围隔试验
陈开宁1,2, 包先明1,2, 史龙新3, 陈伟民1, 兰策介1, 许海1, 胡洪云1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所 南京 210008;2.中国科学院研究生院 北京 100039;3.无锡市太湖湖泊治理有限公司 无锡 214023
摘要:
五里湖是太湖北部富营养化程度最为严重的-湖湾.从2004年1月起,为了改善水质,重建五里湖生态环境,在五里湖南岸建立了一个面积为10×104m2示范工程试验区,采用多技术措施集成应用,开展湖泊生态重建技术研究.经过近2年的生态重建研究与实践,在示范工程试验区内建立了挺水植物、浮叶植物和沉水植物群丛23个,水生植物种类从生态重建前的零上升至15科、22属、32种,水生植物的多样性指数(Shannon-Wieher index)达到2.33,覆盖度达到40%-55%.水质监测结果表明,示范工程区内水体的TN、TP、NH4-N、NO3-N、NO2-N及PO4-P的平均值分别比示范工程区外下降了20.7%、23.8%、35.2%、21.1%、45.6%和54.0%,TN、TP分别下降至2.50mg/L、0.080mg/L以下,水质得到明显改善,达到或低于“浅水湖泊稳态转换理论”指出的向“稳定清水态”转换的临界值,水体透明度(SD)平均值也有较大幅度提高,平均从0.39m提高至0.70m;初步实现湖泊水体从藻类占优势浊水态向大型水生植物占优势的清水态转变.因此重建与恢复湖泊生态系统要从沿岸带着手,首先重建湖滨带结构与功能,通过湖滨带水生生物-系列反馈机制, 逐步改善湖泊水质,最终实现沉水植被恢复;湖泊敞水区应主要采用生物操纵技术措施来实现湖泊生态恢复.
关键词:  生态重建  水生植被恢复  水质改善  五里湖  太湖
DOI:10.18307/2006.0207
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技部“十五”重大科技攻关资助项目(863);“太湖水污染控制与水体修复”(2002AA601013);国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973计划);“湖泊富营养化过程和蓝藻水华暴发机理研究”(2002CB412307)
Ecological restoration engineering in Lake Wuli, Lake Taihu:a large enclosure experiment
CHEN Kaining1,2, BAG Xianmin1,2, SHI Longxin3, CHEN Weimin1, LAN Cejie1, XU Hai1, HU Hongyun1
1.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.Graduate School of Chinese Acdemy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China;3.Wuxi Taihu Lake Management Co.,Ltd, Wuxi 214023, P. R. China
Abstract:
Lake Wuli is a hyper-eutrophic, shallow-lake in China, situated near the Wuxi city in Jiangsu Province. It is a northern bay of Lake Taihu, which has a mean depth of 1.6 m, a maximum depth of 2.6 m and a surface area of 6.4 km2. For improving water quality, from January 2004 a large-scale ecological restoration experiment (10x104 m) has been carried out in southwestern Lake Wuli. Main measures applied include setting-up a large enclosure for facilitating growth of submerged macrophytes, sediment dredging, fish removal, rehabilitating sediment, stocking piscivorous fish, planting aquatic macrophytes, stocking benthic animals and so on. The results showed that 23 aquatic macrophyte associations had been set up, including 15 family, 22 genus and 32 species. The coverage of aquatic macrophytes increased from 0 to 40%-55%.Water quality has been markedly improved inside enclosure. The mean concentrations of TN, TP, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N and PO4-P from August 2004 to July 2005 inside enclosure were 20.7%, 23.8%, 35.2%, 21.1%, 45.6% and 54.0% lower than those of outside enclosure. The mean concentrations of TN and TP were lower than 2.50 mg/L and 0.080 mg/L, respectively. Secchi depth was increased significantly from 0.39m to 0.70m. According to the results of this study, it is important and a first step to rehabilitate ecological structure and function in littoral of lakes, and to improve water quality gradually, and to establish submerged macrophytes at length. Biomanipulation could he applied to increasing secchi depth, reducing algal biomass and improving water quality in open area for whole lake restoration.
Key words:  Lake ecological restoration  macrophyte planting  water quality improvement  Lake Wuli  Lake Taihu
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