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引用本文:顾人和.大禹治水与长江早期文明.湖泊科学,2003,15(Z1):184-189. DOI:10.18307/2003.sup22
GU Renhe.The Watercourse Regulation Masterminded by DA YU and the Nonage of Yangtze Civilization. J. Lake Sci.2003,15(Z1):184-189. DOI:10.18307/2003.sup22
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大禹治水与长江早期文明
顾人和
作者单位
顾人和 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
摘要:
水是大自然最富才华的艺术家,是它塑造了雄奇的长江三峡;水又是地球上一切生命的源泉,是它孕育了灿烂的长江文明.从某种意义上说,中国的上古历史是一部人类同洪水共存的历史,许多古史传说都与水有关.传说中的尧、舜、禹时代,是长江洪水频频发生的历史时期.大禹是中华民族广为传颂的治水英雄,我国第一个统一的国家政权——夏王朝的奠基人.大禹治水的故事发生在大约四千年前,他的足迹遍及华夏大地.中国古代地理学名著《尚书·禹贡》载述,大禹从上游开始经三峡地区一直疏导到长江的中、下游河段,书中曾多处提及禹从事疏浚长江河道制服洪水的水利活动.又据司马迁在《史记·夏本纪》的记载,大禹治水还到了位于江汉平原的古云梦泽.《水经注·江水》则明确指出,三峡河道是大禹开凿和疏通的.在长江三角洲地区,尤其在太湖流域,大禹治水的传说广泛流传,对大禹的崇拜与信仰也极为盛行.考古发现,在长江三角洲一些新石器时代遗址的文化缺失地层中,淤泥厚度达1-1.5 m.一些专家认为,那是4000a以前发生于良渚文化末期的那次特大洪水留下的痕迹.
关键词:  大禹  治水  长江文明
DOI:10.18307/2003.sup22
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(40271027,40371112)资助
The Watercourse Regulation Masterminded by DA YU and the Nonage of Yangtze Civilization
GU Renhe
Abstract:
Water is a great craftsman wiio has sculptured the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. And water is also the headspring of all the life on the earth that has nurtured the resplendent Yangtze Civilization. To some extent, the Chinese immemorial times was a long history in which the Ancients coexisting with the Flood. The YAO-SHUN-YU era in myths was the period when the Yangtze Noachic Flood happened frequently. DAYU is a great ancient hero widely known for his water-control in Chinese mythology and legend. He was the founder of the first unified kaiserdom-XIA dynasty. The famous story about DAYU's water-control was happened 4000 years ago. One of Chinese geographic sutras Shang Shu-Yu Gong recorded that DAYU had triumphant dredged up the mainstream and many branches of the Yangtze River, another sutra Shui Jing Zhu has mentioned that the watercourse of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River was excavated by DAYU. The legend about DAYU's water-control is widely spreaded and the deep adoration to DAYU is prevalent in Yangtze delta, especially in Taihu basin. In several stratums of the Neolithic age where deficient of culture trace massive mud was deposited. According to certain expert, that is the result of the Flood happened 4000 years ago. In Taihu region of the Yangtze delta, refulgent Liangzhu Culture continued some thousand years. The climate in the last period of Liangzhu Culture became more and more cold and wet. The rapid variance of the climate and environment is not direct or only causation but a important factor of the comedown of the famous ancient Culture.
Key words:  DAYU  water-control  Yangtze Civilization
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