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引用本文:黄文钰,吴延根,舒金华.中国主要湖泊水库的水环境问题与防治建议.湖泊科学,1998,10(3):83-90. DOI:10.18307/1998.0315
Huang Wenyu,Wu Yangen,Shu Jinhua.Hydrographical Environmental Problems and Countermeasures of Main Lakes and Reservoirs in China. J. Lake Sci.1998,10(3):83-90. DOI:10.18307/1998.0315
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中国主要湖泊水库的水环境问题与防治建议
黄文钰, 吴延根, 舒金华
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
根据中国主要湖泊和水库近期调查及文献资料的收集、整理和分析,中国湖泊水库当前的主要水环境问题是:(1)水质污染日益严重;(2)富营养化问题较为突出;(3)湖库面积有缩小的趋势;(4)水库泥沙淤积严重;(5)部分湖泊含盐量不断上升,并根据上述问题产生原因的分析,提出了防治对策和建议。
关键词:  湖泊  水库  环境问题  防治
DOI:10.18307/1998.0315
分类号:
基金项目:
Hydrographical Environmental Problems and Countermeasures of Main Lakes and Reservoirs in China
Huang Wenyu, Wu Yangen, Shu Jinhua
Nanjing Institute of Geography Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
Great environmental changes have been witnessed in China's lakes and reservoirs during the past years.According to the data revealed in recent investigations as well as the references available.at least five aspects could be pointed out in view of the main water environmental problems,i.e.common water quality deterioration,especially pollution; overwhelming eutrophication? shrinking lake areas heavy deposition in reservoirs; and higher salinity in some inland lakes.The increasing nutrient-rich inflow is one of the main causes of pollution and eutrophication in China's lakes and reservoirs.More and more pollutants/nutrients from industrial.agricultural.domestic sources have been added in.The wastewater treatment in urban areas lags far behind the economic growth.As a result,the has leen made unbalanced in some basins.The shrinkage of lakes and resevvoirs in South China results from heavy intake deposit and reclamation by human activities in the past years.In the North and North west China,the shrinkage of lake area usually has taken place with water of higher salinity.The accelerated global warming-up dominates a dryer climate in inland China,resultingm more evaporation and less precipitation.Still,inflow with low salinity to the lakes is more or less blocked away in order to meet the needs of human activities,especially economic development.There are many heavily sediment:-ladden rivers in monsoon areas of South China.while in North China the Loess Plateau and/or.loess-rich areas provides a steady source of deposits to ihe river.Heavy sediment available makes much of the reservoirs a real pool of deposit.That the sedimentation condition was not fully considered in the planning of the reservoir building worsens the situation in some reservoirs.In order to change the environmental status quo in China's lakes and reservoirs and the corresponding basins,some immeediate measures must be taken.1) Guide wastewater discharge and operate more wastewater treatment plants.2) Apply reasonable fertilizers; restrict using phosphate-containing detergents; encourage ecological fish farming.3) Initialize water/soil conservation projects in the upper and middle reaches.4) Harmonize between utilization and resources protection in inland areas ; take every step to mitigate the salinization process.5) Employ careful planning before and effective managent after reservoir built.6) Strengthen pollution control and Rarnessing within water bodies,such as ecological engineering aquatic macrophyttes restoration,sludge-dredging in certain districts,etc.7) Enhance integrated environmental management in the whole basin.
Key words:  Lake  reservoir  environmental problem  countermeasures
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