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引用本文:舒金华,黄文钰,高锡芸,吴延根.发达国家禁用(限用)含磷洗衣粉的措施.湖泊科学,1998,10(1):90-96. DOI:10.18307/1998.0115
Shu Jinhua,Huang Wenyu,Gao Xiyun,Wu Yangen.The Practices of Restricting or Banning Phosphates in Detergents in Industralized Countries. J. Lake Sci.1998,10(1):90-96. DOI:10.18307/1998.0115
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发达国家禁用(限用)含磷洗衣粉的措施
舒金华, 黄文钰, 高锡芸, 吴延根
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
在查阅国内外有关文献资料的基础上, 对世界上主要发达国家─美国、加拿大、日本、德国、英国和法国等, 实施禁用(或限用)含磷洗衣粉措施的历史背景状况, 实施后所取得的效果及当前存在的意见分岐作出简要的综述结果表明, “禁磷”措施在洗衣粉中磷占入湖总磷量比例较大(20%以上), 且目前难以兴建三级污水处理厂的湖区, 对削减磷的负荷, 减缓湖泊富营养化的进程, 起到一定的积极作用但解决富营养化问题的根本途径, 还需采用修建三级污水处理厂等多种综合治理技术
关键词:  发达国家  禁(限)磷  洗衣粉
DOI:10.18307/1998.0115
分类号:
基金项目:
The Practices of Restricting or Banning Phosphates in Detergents in Industralized Countries
Shu Jinhua, Huang Wenyu, Gao Xiyun, Wu Yangen
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
Use of phosphate-containing detergents results in the plunce of phosphorus in sewage.and the phosphorus contributes to high phos phorus levels in surface waters which can contribute to the eutrophication process In the late 1960s, the Great Lakes were heavily polluted, the United States and Cannd a looked for measures to clean them up The American action set the pattern for the world that was to ban detergent phosphates.From then on, a number of industrialized coun-tries, such as Japan, Western European countries, have reduced or banned phosphates in deter.gents.Up to now, there has been no convincing evidenee to support the view that the removal of ohosphates from detergents can result in the cbange in the eutrophication state of a body of water,To prevent eutrophication, more than 90% of the phosphorus from alI souses in wastewaters must be removed.But in most eases, the reduction which can be achieved by restricted or banned phosphates in detergents is approximately 20% of the total input phosphorus Therefore.only ad-vaneed wastewater treatment, such as biological phos phorus uptake and chemical precipitation and absorption of phosphorus by the addition of iron and aluminium compounds or lime, is the most generally applicable approach in preventing eutrophication Asummary of the historical background, effects and arguments on restricting or banning phosphates in detergents in industrialized countries are provided.It is expected that this study will cad to the basis for the regulations in China of water resource protection.
Key words:  Industrialized countries  restricting or banning phosphates  detergent
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