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李文朝.浅水湖泊生态系统的多稳态理论及其应用.湖泊科学,1997,9(2):97-104. DOI:10.18307/1997.0201
Li Wenchao.Multiplicity of Stable States in Shallow Lakes and its Application. J. Lake Sci.1997,9(2):97-104. DOI:10.18307/1997.0201
浅水湖泊生态系统的多稳态理论及其应用
Multiplicity of Stable States in Shallow Lakes and its Application
投稿时间:1996-05-22  修订日期:1996-08-21
DOI:10.18307/1997.0201
中文关键词: 浅水湖泊  多稳态理论  多稳态模型  太湖  富营养化防治
Keywords: Shallow lakes  multiple stable states theory  multiple stable states model  Taihu Lake  eutrophication control
基金项目:国家"八五"科技攻关项目85-14-01-03-02
作者单位
李文朝 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008 
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中文摘要:
      在"八五"期间太湖研究工作的基础上,发展和充实了浅水湖泊多稳态理论.简要介绍了多稳态概念模型,并将这一理论和模型贯穿于太湖富营养化防治研究中;总结了太湖各湖区的状态演变过程,提出保护东太湖生态环境和治理五里湖的策略及技术路线,并付诸于实验;证明了利用多稳态理论和多稳态模型指导湖泊富营养化防治的可行性.
Abstract:
      The theory and model of multiple stable states in shallow lakes were improved on the basis of researches in Taihu Lake and other similar lakes. This paper presents the outline of a conceptual model for multiple stable states in shallow lakes. The model is composed of two curved surfaces in a three-dimensional space. The first dimension is external nutrient load of the lake (ENL) which acts as themain forcing factor in eutrophication process of lake ecosystem. Water nutrient level (WNL) takes the second dimension. The third one represents relative dominance of macrophyte and phytoplankton (RD). The upper surface is macrophyte-dominated clear-water phase, and the lower surface represents phytoplankton-dominated turbid-water phase. The two phases are divided into six states (S1-S6) by the critical values a and b on the WNL dimension. When WNL < Ca, there is only one stable state, macrophyte-dominated clear-water state S1. Some biologic or environmental factors may keep the lake water at a turbid state*sub-stable state S4. If those factors are removed, the system will automatically turn to S1 state. When a < WNL < b, two stable states S2 and S5 may exist. The S2 state may be kept by aquatic macrophyte for its positive effects on the water quality and inhibition effects on phytoplankton. If macrophyte is destroyed for any reason? the system may irreversibly skip to S5 state, phytoplankton-dominated turbid-water state. To restore the system back to S2 state, great efforts is needed from the human being. When WNL > b, there is only one permanent stable state, phytoplankton-dominated turbid-water state S6. An unstable state S3 may exist if b < CWNL < Cc. but macrophyte dominance will be automatically replaced by phytoplankton dominance in a short time. When WNL > b, any attempt to restore the system by biomanipulation will be infructuous. With the guiding of this model.state succession process in each basin of Taihu Lake is analyzed. Experiments were carried out to protect East Taihu Lake from algal-dominance and to restore other basins.
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