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引用本文:成水平.人工湿地废水处理系统的生物学基础研究进展.湖泊科学,1996,8(3):268-273. DOI:10.18307/1996.0312
Cheng Shuiping.Advances in biological fundamental studies on artificial wetland wastewater treatment system. J. Lake Sci.1996,8(3):268-273. DOI:10.18307/1996.0312
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人工湿地废水处理系统的生物学基础研究进展
成水平
中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉430072
摘要:
主要阐述了人工湿地废水处理系统中生物学基础的研究进展。至今,对作为湿地生产者的水生植物研究较多,水生植物除直接吸收利用废水中的营养物质、吸附和富集重金属外,还起输送氧气至根区、形成根区多种微环境和维持湿地水力传输的作用;而对作为湿地分解者的微生物(包括细菌、放线菌、真菌、原生动物和藻类)的研究较少,湿地微生物的代谢活动是废水中有机物质降解的基础机制。应加强人工湿地中生物学基础、特别是湿地中微生物的结构与功能的研究,以有利于进一步探讨人工湿地净化废水的机理及改善和提高人工湿地的废水净化效果。
关键词:  人工湿地  废水处理  水生植物  微生物
DOI:10.18307/1996.0312
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Advances in biological fundamental studies on artificial wetland wastewater treatment system
Cheng Shuiping
Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
Abstract:
This paper describes the advances in biological fundamental studies on artificial wetland wastewater treatment systems.In general,wetlands are the overlappd.parts of the land and water area, temporary or permanent shallow water is over the surfaces, and macrophytes are the dominant species.From the 1970s,artificial wetland wastewater treatment systems were developed from wetlands to enhance the wetlandsy water purifying function.Mediums, macrophytes,microorganisms are the basic elements and wastwater treatment is the main function of the artificial wetlands. At present, much more studies are carried out on the role of macrophytes in artificial wetlands, but fewer on microorganisms (including bacteria, actionomyces, fungus, protozoan, algae).Macrophytes uptake nutrients, adsorb and accumulate metals and other pernicious substances directly,also supply oxygen to the rhizosphere, establish diversified microcosms, increase and stabilish the hydraulic conductivity of the wetland.However, microorganisms are decomposers in wetland.The metabolic activities of microorganisms are the basic mechanisms of the organic content decomposing.During the microorganisms' metabolic activities,organic substances can be decomposed into terminal products which evaporate into the atmosphere, or nutrients which macrophytes and microorganisms can uptake, or substances which no or less pernicious to water area. Therefore,the studies on biological fundamental in artificial wetland must be developed, especially on microorganisms.Making systematic studies on the bacteria,actinomyces,fungus, protozoans and algae of the wetland are very useful for pursuing the mechanisms of wastewater treatment further and enhancing pollutant removal effects in artificial wetland.
Key words:  artificial wetland  wastewater treatment  macrophyte  microorganism
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