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三峡水库中段库底水体CH4浓度变化及其主要影响因素
秦宇1, 苏友恒1, 李哲2, 刘正勉1, 张渝阳1
1.重庆交通大学水利水运工程教育部重点实验室;2.中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院
摘要:
甲烷(CH4)是一种重要的温室气体,对全球气候变化有不可忽视的影响。三峡水库是中国最大的水库,其潜在的CH4释放近年来备受关注。然而,此地区现存研究主要集中于水-气界面通量观测,对库底沉积物同底层水体CH4浓度变化之间关系的认知仍然欠缺。为探究三峡水库泥沙主要沉降淤积的中段区域库底水体CH4浓度变化及其主要影响因素,本研究于2017年8月至2018年11月在涪陵南沱镇(FL)、忠县石宝寨(ZX)、万州小周镇(WZ)采集库底上覆水体和底泥样本,并结合三峡水库调度运行特征进行分析。结果表明,三峡水库中段库底上覆水CH4浓度范围为0.02μM·L-1~0.91 μM·L-1,二氧化碳(CO2)浓度范围为0.006μM·L-1~0.105 mM·L-1,沉积物有机碳含量范围在7 g·kg-1~90 g·kg-1,总氮含量范围在0.27~45.6 g·kg-1。另外,三峡水库低水位运行时期(5月~9月),上游及陆源输入大量异源性有机碳是该时期三峡库中段底部CH4积累的充分条件。在水库高水位运行时期(10月~次年4月),水位与径流变化对三峡水库中段底部CH4影响并不明显,库底自源性有机质相对比重有所增加,温度是该时期影响水库底层水体CH4浓度分布的主要水环境因素。
关键词:  三峡水库  CH4  流量水位  沉积物
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学(51861125204,51609026);重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究项目(cstc2017jcyjAX0280)
CH4 variation and main influencing factors of bottom water column in the middle section, Three Gorges Reservoir
QING Yu1, SU Youheng, LI Zhe2, LIU Zhengmian, ZHANG Yuyang
1.Key Laboratory of Hydraulic and Waterway Engineering of the Ministry of Education;2.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, contributing to global climate change. The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the largest reservoir in China and has been receiving concerns for its potential CH4 emissions during the past decades. However, the current research in the TGR mainly focuses on the observation of water-air interface fluxes, the knowledge of relationship between bottom sediments in the reservoir and CH4 concentrations variation of the bottom water column is still lacking. To explore CH4 concentrations variation and main influencing factors of the bottom water column in the middle section of TGR, this study collects overlying water and sediment of the bottom respectively at Nanling Town, Fuling (FL), Shibaozhai, Zhongxian(ZX) and Xiaozhou Town, Wanzhou(WZ) in the middle section of the TGR during August 2017 to November 2018, and analyzing the data combined with reservoir operation characteristics. The results indicate, in the middle section of the TGR, CH4 concentrations in the overlying water of the bottom ranges from 0.02 μM · L-1 to 0.91 μM · L-1, carbon dioxide (CO2) ranges from 0.006 mM · L-1 to 0.105 mM · L-1, the OC content in the sediment ranges from 7 g·kg-1 to 90 g·kg-1, and TN ranges from 0.27 g·kg-1 to 45.6 g·kg-1. During the low water level period of the TGR (May to September), a large amount of allochthonous OC input from upstream and terrestrial sources is a sufficient condition for CH4 accumulation of the bottom in the middle section of the TGR. During the highwater level period (October to April of the following year), water level and runoff variations have no obvious effect on CH4 of the bottom in the middle section of the TGR, the relative proportion of autochthonous OM of the bottom in the reservoir is increased, and temperature is the main aquatic environmental factor that affected the CH4 distribution.
Key words:  Three Gorges Reservoir  CH4  flow and water level  sediment
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