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白洋淀生态需水:进展及展望
杨薇, 赵彦伟, 刘强, 孙涛
北京师范大学环境学院
摘要:
采用文献计量、统计分析等手段收集了国内外关于白洋淀生态需水核算的研究成果,系统梳理了15种白洋淀生态需水核算方法,获得了白洋淀不同时间尺度、不同等级生态需水核算结果,并结合雄安新区规划对白洋淀生态需水核算存在的问题及未来的需求提出了展望。统计结果表明,白洋淀最小生态水位为7.45±0.66 m,适宜水位为8.61±0.52 m,最大水位为9.46±0.51m;各等级生态需水月际变化趋势大致相同,8-9月最大,5月最小,但各月不同等级生态需水量的变幅较大;白洋淀最小生态补水量为1.35亿m3,适宜补水量2.40亿m3,最大生态补水量6.20亿m3。从支撑雄安新区规划建设的角度来看,目前白洋淀生态需水核算中面临的不足主要集中在生态管理目标和方法选择导致核算结果差异较大、缺乏淀区生态需水机制的阐释、生态需水核算时间尺度较粗略、未考虑淀区空间异质性的需水差异以及忽略河湖水文连通关系与过程等5个方面;最后,以恢复白洋淀良性生态系统为导向,从分级分区开展白洋淀生态需水精细核算、分时分段淀区生态需水量质耦合模拟和考虑河湖沼连通的淀区水动力过程恢复3个方面提出了未来研究的建议与展望。
关键词:  白洋淀  生态需水  流量调控  多源补水  新区建设
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目、国家重点研发计划项目、国家水体污染控制与治理专项
A systematic literature review and perspective on water for environment of Baiyangdian Lake
杨薇, Zhao Yanwei, Liu Qiang, Sun Tao
Beijing Normal University
Abstract:
We collected the 35 literatures about water for environment in Baiyangdian Lake, systematically analyzed the methodologies and the corresponding calculation results. Further then, we identified the existing problem, and proposed research expectations in the future according to the planning of the Xiong’an New area. As the statistical results, the lowest water levels of Baiyangdian are about 7.45±0.66 m, the suitable levels are about 8.61±0.52 m, and the highest levels are 9.46±0.51m. Among the above three grades, water levels in August and September has the largest values, but the smallest in May. In addition, extra water with the range of (1.35-6.2)×108 m3 should be supplied to the Lake Baiyangdian annually to protect and maintain the ecosystem status. However, the current research on environmental water in Baiyangdian Lake is insufficient to support the construction of the New Area, such as significant differences in water for environment from various calculation methods, the mechanism deficiency and rough time scale (year and month) in the environmental water calculation, no considering the spatial heterogeneity in the lake and the connection of the lake and upstream rivers. Therefore, we proposed the three research expectations, including the gridding and fine calculation, water quantity and quality simulation by restoring stages, as well as the recovering of the lake hydrodynamic process.
Key words:  Baiyangdian  Water for environment  flow regulation  environmental flow releases  Xiong’an New Area
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