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三十年来长江中下游湖泊富营养化状况变迁及其影响因素
朱广伟1, 许海1, 朱梦圆1, 邹伟1, 国超旋1, 季鹏飞2, 笪文怡3
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室;2.江南大学环境与土木工程学院;3.西华师范大学环境科学与工程学院
摘要:
为弄清长江中下游通江/历史通江湖泊富营养化现状、成因及修复策略, 对该区域27个大型湖泊和水库开展了4个季度的水质调查, 并结合部分湖泊1988-1992年及2008年两个时段富营养化调查成果, 分析了近30年来长江中下游地区大型湖泊富营养化关键指标变化的特征及其驱动因素. 结果表明, 目前该区域绝大多数湖泊处于富营养水平, 较上世纪80年代有明显加重, 浮游植物叶绿素a及总磷是最主要的营养状态指数贡献因子;湖泊的富营养化状况与湖泊的江湖连通状况、换水周期等流动性状况、渔业养殖及管理状况、流域纳污状况、治理强度状况等人类活动方式和强度密切相关;与历史调查结果相比的结果表明,氮、磷的增幅相对较小,而有机质污染程度明显加重、浮游植物叶绿素a浓度大幅增高,表明营养盐之外的其他因素, 如水文节律的变化、江湖阻隔、不合理的渔业养殖活动等,对该区域湖泊的富营养化问题加剧、浮游植物生产力增高起到更为重要的作用. 因此, 从治理途径和策略上来看, 增加湖泊的流通性、恢复部分湖泊的自然水文波动节律、优化湖泊渔业管理、提升湖泊流域营养盐的有效截留能力、实施湖泊生态修复工程是控制长江中下游湖泊富营养化、提升区域湖泊生态质量的关键.
关键词:  长江中下游平原  浅水湖泊  富营养化  江湖阻隔  生态渔业  网围养殖
DOI:
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基金项目:中国科学院重大资助项目,中国科学院重点资助项目,国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Changes of trophic state and driving factors in lakes at the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in the past 30 years
Zhu Guangwei,Xu Hai,Zhu Mengyuan,Zou Wei,Guo Chaoxuan,JI Pengfei,Da Wenyi
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
To understand the current eutrophication status, main drivers of eutrophication and restoration strategy of Yangtze-connected or Yangtze- isolated lakes (historically connected to the Yangtze River but isolated by artificial dikes today ), the trophic state parameters and main water environmental variables were surveyed seasonally in 27 large lakes and reservoirs of this region during 2017 to 2018. In addition, the temporal eutrophication dynamics and associated driving mechanisms of these lakes over the past 30 years were analyzed based on the historical data of these lakes (investigated during 1988 to 1992 and 2008). Our results showed that most of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River were eutrophic now, and significantly worse than the status of 1988 to 1992, mainly contributed by chlorophyll a of phytoplankton and total phosphorus. Those human activities, including changes of water retention time (primarily depend on the lake - Yangtze connection condition), fishery activities, catchment pollution condition, and lake restoration are decisive factors in shaping the eutrophication status of these lakes. Comparing with the historical recordings, phytoplankton chlorophyll a and associated organic matter concentrations are increased drastically, while nutrients (e.g., total phosphorus and nitrogen) experienced relatively less increase, yet. Therefore, it is suggested that the non-nutrients factors were the major causes which strengthen the eutrophication risk. From the perspective of restoration strategies of lakes the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, it is crucial that re-build the hydrological connectivity, restore natural water level fluctuation, optimize the fishery management and enhance the catchment nutrient abatement ability and applying the in-lake restoration engineering.
Key words:  flood plain of Changjiang, shallow lake, eutrophication, river-lake connectivity, ecological fishery, enclosure fishery
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