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引用本文:杜明勇,于洋,阳振,陈非洲,张民,芮琪,孔繁翔.太湖流域2012年枯水期浮游生物群落结构特征.湖泊科学,2014,26(5):724-734. DOI:10.18307/2014.0510
DU Mingyong,YU Yang,YANG Zhen,CHEN Feizhou,ZHANG Min,RUI Qi,KONG Fanxiang.Characteristics of community structure of plankton in the Lake Taihu basin during the dry season of 2012. J. Lake Sci.2014,26(5):724-734. DOI:10.18307/2014.0510
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太湖流域2012年枯水期浮游生物群落结构特征
杜明勇1,2, 于洋2, 阳振2, 陈非洲2, 张民2, 芮琪1, 孔繁翔2
1.南京农业大学生命科学学院, 南京 210095;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
在野外调查的基础上,利用物种多样性指数及典范对应分析(CCA),于2012年研究太湖流域枯水期浮游动植物群落结构特征.共鉴定出浮游植物139种,分属7门71属.太湖中蓝藻门密度占总密度的95.8%,为太湖浮游植物的优势种群.铜绿微囊藻占总密度的86.7%,为太湖的绝对优势种.太湖流域水系中蓝藻门、硅藻门和绿藻门的密度之和占总密度的92.2%,成为太湖流域水系中的优势种群.其中硅藻门中的小环藻、蓝藻门中的惠氏微囊藻为优势种(属),密度分别达到17.4%、10.3%;鉴定出浮游动物27种,主要为枝角类的象鼻溞、网纹溞和桡足类的哲水蚤、剑水蚤.太湖中浮游动物生物量为265.1μg/L,枝角类的象鼻溞和网纹溞分别占总生物量的48.7%和5.1%;桡足类的哲水蚤和剑水蚤分别占总生物量的15.9%和22.5%.太湖流域水系中浮游动物生物量只有21.8μg/L,主要为枝角类的象鼻溞、桡足类的哲水蚤和剑水蚤.物种多样性指数分析显示,太湖浮游植物的多样性最高,其次为宜溧水系,然后依次为运河水系、出湖水系、苕溪水系;而浮游动物的多样性则是太湖最高,其次为苕溪水系,然后依次为宜溧水系、出湖水系、运河水系.CCA分析表明,浮游植物群落与硝态氮、总氮、总磷呈显著相关,而浮游动物分布主要与硝态氮、溶解氧、温度呈显著相关.浮游动植物优势种群之间存在显著相关性.秀体溞、基合溞和温剑水蚤与硅藻呈显著正相关;蓝藻与象鼻溞、网纹溞、汤匙华哲水蚤等相关性显著.
关键词:  太湖流域  浮游植物  浮游动物  群落结构  多样性指数  典范对应分析  枯水期
DOI:10.18307/2014.0510
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2012ZX07506-001);中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所"一三五"战略发展规划项目联合资助
Characteristics of community structure of plankton in the Lake Taihu basin during the dry season of 2012
DU Mingyong1,2, YU Yang2, YANG Zhen2, CHEN Feizhou2, ZHANG Min2, RUI Qi1, KONG Fanxiang2
1.College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
A detailed field survey of zooplankton and phytoplankton was conducted in the Lake Taihu basin during the 2012 dry season. Community structure of zooplankton and phytoplankton, and their relationships with environmental factors were studied by species diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis(CCA). Totally 139 species of phytoplankton from 7 phyla and 71 genera have been identified. In Lake Taihu, Cyanophyta was the dominant population, accounted for 95.8% of the density of phytoplankton. Notably the density of Microcystis aeruginosa, the predominant species, was 86.7% of the density of phytoplankton. In the river systems discharging into Lake Taihu, 92.2% density of the phytoplankton belonging to Cyanophyta, Bacillarophyta and Chlorophyta, which constructed the dominant populations. Cyclotella sp. and Microcystis wesenbergii were the dominant species, accounted for 17.4% and 10.3% of the numbers of phytoplankton, respectively. Twenty-seven species of zooplankton have also been identified, including Cladocera(mainly Bosmina sp.and Ceriodaphnia sp.)and Copepoda(mainly Sinocalanus dorrii and Limnoithona sinenesis). In Lake Taihu, the biomass of zooplankton was 265.1μg/L, Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia sp., Sinocalanus dorrii and Limnoithona sinenesis accounted for 48.7%, 5.1%, 15.9% and 22.5% of the total biomass, respectively; while in river systems discharging into Lake Taihu, the biomass of zooplankton was only 21.8μg/L. Bosmina sp., Sinocalanus dorrii and Limnoithona sinenesis were the dominant species. Diversity index showed that Lake Taihu have the highest phytoplankton biodiversity, followed by the Yili River system, the Yunhe River system, the Chuhu River system and the Shaoxi River system successively. The highest zooplankton diversity was also found in Lake Taihu, followed by the Shaoxi River system, and then the Yili River system, the Chuhu River system and the Yunhe River system. CCA analysis showed that phytoplankton community was significantly associated with nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus while the distribution of zooplankton was related significantly to nitrate, dissolved oxygen and temperature. There was a significant correlation between phytoplankton and zooplankton. Bacillariophyta was significant positively related to Diaphanosoma sp., Bosminopsis sp. and Mesocyclops sp.. Cyanophyta was significantly associated with Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia sp. and Sinocalanus dorrii.
Key words:  Lake Taihu basin  phytoplankton  zooplankton  community structure  diversity index  canonical correspondence analysis  dry season
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