湖泊科学   2021, Vol. 33 Issue (5): 1315-1333.  DOI: 10.18307/2021.0503. 0

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Wang Rui, He Liang, Zhang Meng, Cao Te, Zhang Xiaolin, Liu Ying, Ni Leyi, Ge Gang. Factors on seed germination, tuber sprout and plant growth of Vallisneria species in China. Journal of Lake Sciences, 2021, 33(5): 1315-1333. DOI: 10.18307/2021.0503.
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2020-08-26 收稿
2021-02-02 收修改稿

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(1: 南昌大学生命科学学院, 南昌 330031)
(2: 南昌大学鄱阳湖环境与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330031)
(3: 南昌大学资源环境与化工学院, 南昌 330031)
(4: 江西省环境保护科学研究院, 南昌 330039)
(5: 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072)

Factors on seed germination, tuber sprout and plant growth of Vallisneria species in China
Wang Rui1 , He Liang2,3 , Zhang Meng4 , Cao Te5 , Zhang Xiaolin5 , Liu Ying1 , Ni Leyi5 , Ge Gang1,2
(1: School of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, P. R. China)
(2: Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization of Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, P. R. China)
(3: School of Resources, Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, P. R. China)
(4: Jiangxi Academy of Environmental Sciences, Nanchang 330039, P. R. China)
(5: Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China)
Abstract: The abundance of the Vallisneria species has declined in many freshwater bodies in China, as their habitats were disturbed and polluted by human activities. The restorations of these species, however, have had limited success. This review aims to determine which factors and how these factors regulate the seed germination, tuber sprout and plant growth of the Vallisneria species, thus providing insights for the protection and restoration of the Vallisneria species in China. The factors which affect the seed germination, tuber sprout and plant growth of the Vallisneria species were summarized and the quantitative relationships between some key environmental factors and seed germination, tuber sprout and plant growth of the Vallisneria species were re-analyzed based on the data from the literature. The results showed that: (1) studies for V. natans (Lour.) Hara were much more than those of V. spinulosa Yan and V. denseserrulata Makino in literatures; (2) seed germination of the Vallisneria species was affected by factors including temperature, light availability, water depth, burial depth, growth medium and store conditions; (3) the growth of the Vallisneria species was affected by factors including light availability, water depth, water nutrient, sediment nutrient, sediment organic matter and herbivory; (4) seed germination rate of V. natans and V. spinulosa was high (>50% in average) at 20-30℃; (5) seed germination rate of V. natans rapidly decreased with burying depth; (6) the relative growth rate of V. natans increased with light availability and decreased with water depth; (7) the growth of V. natans decreased with ammonia nitrogen concentration and (8) the negative effect of high total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water column or sediment on Vallisneria species was from shading by phytoplankton and epiphyton induced by nutrient enrichment other than direct toxicity. More studies are needed to reveal the quantitative relationship between the environmental factors and the growth of Vallisneria species in the further.
Keywords: Vallisneria    submerged macrophyte restoration    environmental factor    eutrophication

1 研究方法 1.1 文献收集及数据整理

 $R G R=\left(\ln \left(W_{2}\right)-\ln \left(W_{1}\right)\right) / t$ (1)

1.2 统计分析

1.3 定性定量分析的说明

2 结果与讨论

2.1 苦草种子萌发的影响因素

 图 1 苦草种子萌发率与温度和掩埋深度的关系 (黑色实线为基于广义加性混合模型的预测值，虚线范围为预测值的95% 置信区间) Fig.1 The relationships between seed germination rate of Vallisneria natans and temperature and burial depth (The black solid lines were the predicted values based the generalized additive mixed models and the ranges between two black dashed lines were 95% confidence interval of the predicted values)

2.2 刺苦草种子萌发的影响因素

 图 2 刺苦草种子萌发率和冬芽萌发率与温度的关系 (黑色实线为基于广义加性混合模型的预测值，虚线范围为预测值的95% 置信区间) Fig.2 The relationships between seed germination and tuber sprout rate of Vallisneria spinulosa and temperature (The black solid lines were the predicted values based the generalized additive mixed models and the ranges between two black dashed lines were 95% confidence interval of the predicted values)

2.3 密刺苦草种子萌发的影响因素

2.4 刺苦草冬芽萌发的影响因素

2.5 苦草生长的影响因素

2.5.1 光照强度、水深对苦草生长的影响

 图 3 苦草相对生长率与光照强度和水深的关系 (黑色实线为基于广义加性混合模型的预测值，虚线范围为预测值的95% 置信区间) Fig.3 The relationships between relative growth rate of Vallisneria natans and light availability and water depth (The black solid lines were the predicted values based the generalized additive mixed models and the ranges between two black dashed lines were 95% confidence interval of the predicted values)

2.5.2 水体营养水平对苦草生长的影响

 图 4 苦草相对生长率与水体总氮、总磷和氨氮浓度及底泥总氮、总磷和有机质含量的关系 (黑色实线为基于广义加性混合模型的预测值，虚线范围为预测值的95% 置信区间) Fig.4 The relationships between relative growth rate of Vallisneria natans and concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen in water column and the content of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic matter in sediment (The black solid lines were the predicted values based the generalized additive mixed models and the ranges between two black dashed lines were 95% confidence interval of the predicted)

2.5.3 底泥营养水平和底泥有机质对苦草生长的影响

2.6 刺苦草生长的影响因素

2.6.1 光照强度、水深对刺苦草生长的影响

2.6.2 水体营养水平对刺苦草生长的影响

2.6.3 底泥营养水平对刺苦草生长的影响

2.6.4 生物因子对刺苦草生长的影响

2.7 密刺苦草生长的影响因素

3 结论

4 展望

5 参考文献