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引用本文:覃一帆,孔祥臻,李一龙,武睿琳,徐福留.逸度模型在湖泊流域农药多介质归趋研究中的应用与展望.湖泊科学,2020,32(4):1212-1226. DOI:
QIN Yifan,KONG Xiangzhen,LI Yilong,WU Ruilin,XU Fuliu.Application and prospects of fugacity models in the fate of pesticides in lake watershed. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(4):1212-1226. DOI:
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逸度模型在湖泊流域农药多介质归趋研究中的应用与展望
覃一帆, 孔祥臻, 李一龙, 武睿琳, 徐福留
北京大学城市与环境学院, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
摘要:
农药的施用在促进农业经济发展的同时,也带来了诸多环境问题.农药由农业活动排放进入到环境后会通过不同的途径在各介质之间进行迁移和转化,最后由径流作用汇聚于湖泊中,破坏生态环境,影响人类健康.因此,研究湖泊流域生态系统中农药的多介质归趋具有重要意义.使用基于逸度的多介质模型模拟农药在环境中的行为是一个十分有效的方法.逸度模型利用“逸度”的概念描述污染物在各个环境介质之间的迁移和转化过程趋势,其结果建立在化学物质自身物化性质和环境系统性质之上,不仅适用于预测农药在环境各介质中的残留水平,还可以揭示区域内污染的空间分布特征,是湖泊流域生态系统管理中一个重要的工具.本文综述了逸度模型的理论基础,对近年来国内外逸度模型的发展现状、相关环境模型及其在农药归趋研究和湖泊流域生态系统管理中的运用进行了总结,并展望了逸度模型在农药多介质研究中的应用前景,以期对我国农药的管理、合理施用方面提供科学与技术支持.
关键词:  农药  逸度  多介质模型  湖泊流域  归趋
DOI:
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基金项目:国家重点研究计划项目(2016YFD0201204)资助.
Application and prospects of fugacity models in the fate of pesticides in lake watershed
QIN Yifan, KONG Xiangzhen, LI Yilong, WU Ruilin, XU Fuliu
Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of Ministry of Education, College of Urban & Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China
Abstract:
The frequent use of pesticides promotes the agricultural economy, but also brings a lot of environmental problems. When entering the environment from agricultural activities, pesticides can migrate and transform in different ways, finally sank into the lake by runoff, damaging ecological environment and affecting human health. Therefore, it is necessary to study the distribution and fate of pesticides in lake watershed ecosystem. Fugacity-based fate models could provide an effective approach of transportation behavior and fate of pesticides in environmental. The concept of "fugacity" is used to describe the chemical activity of pollutants between different environmental media, so that the simulation results are based on physicochemical properties of chemicals and environmental system. Fugacity models can not only predict residual levels of pesticides in various environmental media, but also reveal spatial distribution features, and will be an important tool for lake watershed ecosystem management. This article reviews its theoretical basis and introduces development status of fugacity models in recent years, and analyses their application in pesticides research and lake watershed ecosystem management, then puts forward the application prospect of the fugacity models in pesticides research. The studies would provide scientific and technical supports in pesticides control and management.
Key words:  Pesticides  fugacity  multimedia models  lake watershed  fate
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