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引用本文:谢洪民,李启升,刘帅领,张又,黄晓龙,李宽意.环太湖地区河道和湖泊沿岸带水生植物多样性现状调查.湖泊科学,2020,32(3):735-744. DOI:10.18307/2020.0313
XIE Hongmin,LI Qisheng,LIU Shuailing,ZHANG You,HUANG Xiaolong,LI Kuanyi.Investigation on the status quo of aquatic plant biodiversity in the riverways and littoral zones of the Lake Taihu rim. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(3):735-744. DOI:10.18307/2020.0313
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环太湖地区河道和湖泊沿岸带水生植物多样性现状调查
谢洪民1,2,3, 李启升1,2,3, 刘帅领4, 张又3, 黄晓龙3, 李宽意1,2,3,5
1.上海海洋大学水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306;2.上海海洋大学上海水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306;3.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;4.江苏江达生态环境科技有限公司, 无锡 214135;5.中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100049
摘要:
环太湖地区经济发达,人口密集,近年来面临严重的富营养化、生境退化和外来水生物种入侵等环境问题.为明确环太湖地区河道和湖泊沿岸带水生植物多样性现状,于2018年开展本地和外来水生植物多样性调查.结果表明:(1)在环太湖地区共计进行65个群落样方调查分析,记录到38种水生植物,分属22科29属;(2)环太湖地区31个河道样方中入侵沉水植物水盾草重要值最高,其次为另一种入侵漂浮植物凤眼蓝,在34个湖泊沿岸带样方中凤眼蓝重要值最高;(3)环太湖地区河道和湖泊沿岸带样方生物多样性分别随着水盾草和凤眼蓝盖度的增加而降低,表明外来入侵植物影响水生植物生物多样性.环太湖地区湖泊需加强防范凤眼蓝漂浮生长分布范围扩大和水盾草沿河道入侵太湖湖区.这一地区同时面对水生植物覆盖面积减少和外来植物入侵问题,建议进行全太湖流域水生植物分布区域和生物多样性摸底普查,加强对外来入侵植物传播的监控,建立水生植物自然保护区.
关键词:  环太湖地区  水生植物  生物入侵  凤眼蓝  水盾草
DOI:10.18307/2020.0313
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(31930074)、国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07203-005)、中国科学院科技服务网络STS计划区域重点项目(KFJ-STS-QYZD-099)和中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所引进人才启动项目(NIGLAS2018QD01)联合资助.
Investigation on the status quo of aquatic plant biodiversity in the riverways and littoral zones of the Lake Taihu rim
XIE Hongmin1,2,3, LI Qisheng1,2,3, LIU Shuailing4, ZHANG You3, HUANG Xiaolong3, LI Kuanyi1,2,3,5
1.National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, P. R. China;2.Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Aquaculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, P. R. China;3.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;4.Jiangsu Jiangda Eco Technology Co. Ltd., Wuxi 214135, P. R. China;5.Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
Abstract:
The Lake Taihu rim has a robust economy and a dense population. In recent years, this area is facing severe environmental problems such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and invasion of introduced aquatic species. Aimed to clarify the status quo of aquatic plant bio-diversity in riverway and littoral zone of the Lake Taihu rim, surveys on native and introduced aquatic plants were performed in this area in 2018. The results indicate that:(1) In total, 38 aquatic plants species in 22 families and 29 genera were recorded in 65 community quadrats in the Lake Taihu rim in 2018; (2) An invasive submerged plant Cabomba caroliniana has the highest relative importance value (RIV) among 31 riverway quadrats, followed by an invasive free-floating plant Eichhornia crassipes, and the latter one has the highest RIV among 34 littoral zone quadrats; (3) The aquatic plant biodiversity indices decreased with the increasing coverage of C. caroliniana and E. crassipes in riverway and littoral zone quadrats, respectively, indicating that the invasive plants had an impact on the biodiversity of aquatic plants. The expanding distribution of the free-floating plant E. crassipes, and the possible invasion of the submerged plant C. caroliniana alongside river channels should be monitored in the Lake Taihu. Facing the problems of reducing coverage of aquatic plants and the invasion of introduced plants, it is recommended to conduct a full investigation on the distribution area and bio-diversity of aquatic plants, enhance supervisory control on the spread of introduced species, and establish natural reserves on aquatic plants in the Taihu Basin.
Key words:  Lake Taihu rim  aquatic plants  biological invasion  Eichhornia crassipes  Cabomba caroliniana
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