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引用本文:黄洁钰,任敏,赵高峰,王晓燕.洞庭湖支流枯水期表层水和沉积物中氯苯甲醚类化合物分布特征与生态风险.湖泊科学,2020,32(3):641-653. DOI:10.18307/2020.0305
HUANG Jieyu,REN Min,ZHAO Gaofeng,WANG Xiaoyan.Pollution characteristics and potential risks of chloroanisoles in surface water and sediments of three tributaries of Lake Dongting in dry season. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(3):641-653. DOI:10.18307/2020.0305
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洞庭湖支流枯水期表层水和沉积物中氯苯甲醚类化合物分布特征与生态风险
黄洁钰1, 任敏1, 赵高峰2, 王晓燕1
1.首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048;2.水利部信息中心, 北京 100053
摘要:
环境中的氯苯甲醚类化合物(chloroanisoles,CAs)主要来自于氯酚类化合物及其他结构相似的氯代烃.在我国洞庭湖血吸虫疫区,五氯酚作为灭螺剂施放对周围环境造成了CAs污染.运用气相色谱-质谱联用方法测定洞庭湖支流(澧水、藕池河和沱江)表层水和沉积物中的CAs,并分析其分布特征与生态风险.结果显示:(1)水体是CAs的主要赋存介质.三支流表层水中CAs体现出显著差异性,污染水平由大到小为澧水 > 藕池河 > 沱江,三者总CAs浓度分别为18.94、8.83和4.14 ng/L;在3支流中沉积物中的总CAs无明显差异,分别为2.86、3.61和4.07 ng/g.(2)澧水表层水和沉积物中高氯取代CAs(三氯苯甲醚、四氯苯甲醚和五氯苯甲醚)为主要污染物(分别占73.75%和68.89%);藕池河表层水中低氯取代CAs(一氯苯甲醚和二氯苯甲醚)占比相对较高(48.59%),而沉积物中以高氯取代CAs为主(93.38%);沱江表层水和沉积物中占比较高的CAs为一氯苯甲醚,分别占28.26%和75.56%.(3)空间分布上,从上游到下游澧水表层水中CAs浓度呈现波动下降的趋势,而沉积物中呈上升趋势;藕池河表层水中CAs呈现波动下降的趋势,沉积物中无明显变化趋势;沱江表层水和沉积物中一氯苯甲醚呈波动上升趋势,其他CAs有波动但无明显趋势.(4)研究区水中的五氯苯甲醚浓度远低于报道的鱼类和无脊椎动物的五氯苯甲醚急性半数致死浓度,目前不会对水生生物造成太大影响,但其对人类健康和环境的潜在风险不可忽视.
关键词:  氯苯甲醚  洞庭湖  五氯苯甲醚  分布特征  生态风险
DOI:10.18307/2020.0305
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(21377168,41271495)和北京市自然科学基金委员会-北京市教育委员会联合资助项目(KZ201810028047)联合资助.
Pollution characteristics and potential risks of chloroanisoles in surface water and sediments of three tributaries of Lake Dongting in dry season
HUANG Jieyu1, REN Min1, ZHAO Gaofeng2, WANG Xiaoyan1
1.College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, P. R. China;2.Information Center of the Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100053, P. R. China
Abstract:
Chloroanisoles (CAs) in the environment are mainly derived from chlorophenols and other chlorinated hydrocarbons with similar structures. As molluscicide, pentachlorophenol was released to the schistosomiasis area of Lake Dongting watershed in China and caused CAs pollution. This study aims at quantifying the pollution characteristics and potential risks of chloroanisoles in surface waters and sediments of three tributaries, the Lishui River (LS), the Ouchihe River (OCH) and the Tuojiang River (TJ) of Lake Dongting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of CAs. Results show that:(1) Water is the main sink for CAs. The CAs concentrations in surface water of the three river shows significant differences with each other. The water pollution level from high to low was LS > OCH > TJ, with CAs concentration being 18.94, 8.83 and 4.14 ng/L, respectively. There is no significant difference in total CAs content in the sediments of the three tributaries, with CAs content being 2.86, 3.61 and 4.07 ng/g, respectively. (2) Trichloroanisole (TCA), tetrachloroanisole (TeCA) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) were the main pollutants of LS both in surface water and sediments (73.75% and 68.89%, respectively). The proportion of chloroanisole (CA) and dichloroanisole (DCA) in the surface water of OCH is relatively higher than other CAs (both, 48.59%), while in sediments TCA, TeCA and PCA were the main pollutants (the three, 93.38%); The CAs in the surface water and sediments of TJ were dominated by CA, accounting for 28.26% and 75.56%, respectively. (3) From upstream to downstream, the CAs in the surface water of LS showed a downward trend, while in the sediments increased slightly; the CAs in the surface water of OCH showed a downward trend, and the content of CAs in the sediments did not have significant trend; in TJ, only CA in water and sediments fluctuating rose, while other CAs had fluctuations but no significant changes. (4) PCA concentration in the water was lower than the acute 50% lethal concentration for fish and invertebrates reported in previous studies. There was no serious impact on aquatic organisms so far, however, the risks of CAs to the human health and environment could not be ignored.
Key words:  Chloroanisoles  Lake Dongting  pentachloroanisole  pollution characteristics  potential risks
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