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引用本文:范成新.湖泊沉积物-水界面研究进展与展望.湖泊科学,2019,31(5):1191-1218. DOI:
FAN Chengxin.Advances and prospect in sediment-water interface of lakes: A review. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(5):1191-1218. DOI:
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湖泊沉积物-水界面研究进展与展望
范成新
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
湖泊沉积物-水界面是以水层/沉积层物相为基础、具有一定立体尺度的交接面,界面上所发生的由生物积极参与的物理、化学和生物学微小反应和环境变化,都会对界面附近物质的状态和迁移转化行为产生着复杂影响.本文首先回顾了沉积物-水界面研究100多年来的发展历程及国内外近20年发展.然后系统介绍了国际上对沉积物-水界面的物理尺度与结构的宏观和微观认识;重点综述了沉积物间隙水的取样、物化性质的多维测定与结构表征、过程的静态和动态模拟等湖泊沉积物-水界面研究技术与方法;分析和展示了氮磷等营养物、重金属和持久性有机污染物在湖泊沉积物-水界面迁移转化过程的研究进展;总结和归纳了在沉积物-水界面过程的模型研究、沉积物-水界面物质交换的定量化、界面过程与湖泊生态环境灾害关系等模型与过程效应方面的研究成果.最后对沉积物-水界面信息获取技术的研发方向、界面物质交换定量化研究的关注点,以及加强模型的应用和构建等方面进行了展望.
关键词:  沉积物-水界面  间隙水取样  营养盐  动态模拟  通量估算  扩散  模型
DOI:
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基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07103-005)资助.
Advances and prospect in sediment-water interface of lakes: A review
FAN Chengxin
State Key Laboratory of Lake Sciences and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
The sediment-water interface in freshwater lakes is a three-dimensional interface based on the water/sediment facies. The micro-reactions, which are actively participated by organisms, and micro-environmental changes of physical, chemical and biological reactions on the interface will have a complex impact on the state and migration-transformation behavior of substances near the interface. In this paper, the courses of sediment-water interface research in the past 100 years, especially the development in the recent 20 years, both at home and abroad are reviewed from a comprehensive perspective. Firstly, the international macro-and micro-understanding of the physical scale and structure of sediment-water interface is introduced. The techniques and methods applied in the aquatic sediment-water interface research and practice, which are the sampling of interstitial water, multi-dimensional measurement of physicochemical properties in sediments and their structure characterization, static/dynamic processes simulation and others are selected for detailed analysis. Moreover, the advances on the migration and transformation process of phosphorus and nitrogen and other nutrients, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in aquatic sediment-water interface are discussed, especially in respects of modelling study of sediment-water interface process, quantification of substance exchange across the sediment-water interface, and relationships between the interface processes and lake eco-environmental disasters. Finally, the development trend for the future research of information acquisition technology for sediment-water interface analysis, the focus of quantitative research on interfacial substance exchange, and the application and construction of more efficient models etc. are favorably suggested.
Key words:  Sediment-water interface  interstitial water sampling  nutrient  dynamic simulation  flux estimation  diffusion  model
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