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引用本文:高耶,谢永宏,邹冬生,侯婷娟,李正最.近40年洞庭湖区内湖水面面积变化及其驱动因素.湖泊科学,2019,31(3):755-765. DOI:10.18307/2019.0314
GAO Ye,XIE Yonghong,ZOU Dongsheng,HOU Tingjuan,LI Zhengzui.Changes and driving factors of water surface area for inner lakes in Lake Dongting district in the past 40 years. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(3):755-765. DOI:10.18307/2019.0314
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近40年洞庭湖区内湖水面面积变化及其驱动因素
高耶1,2, 谢永宏3,4, 邹冬生1, 侯婷娟5, 李正最2
1.湖南农业大学生命科学学院, 长沙 410128;2.湖南省水文水资源勘测局, 长沙 410007;3.中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;4.中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所洞庭湖湿地生态系统观测研究站, 岳阳 414018;5.郴州市水文水资源勘测局, 郴州 423000
摘要:
选择1979-2016年间多时期、多类型、多光谱遥感数据,分析评价洞庭湖区内湖近40年的面积变化.结果表明,最近40年洞庭湖区内湖面积保持相对稳定,丰水期间呈上升趋势,枯水期间波动下降,2016年内湖总面积比1980s初减少3.94%.随着湖泊面积增加,湖泊水面面积变化的比例和幅度逐渐减小,大型湖泊(>10 km2)和中型湖泊(5~10 km2)面积相对稳定,小型内湖(<5 km2)面积变化尤为剧烈.内湖水面面积主要受降雨、蒸发等气候因素和生产生活取水、防洪排涝和退田还湖等人为活动调控.1980-2000年和2001-2015年两个时期,洞庭湖区多年平均降雨量呈现不同程度的下降趋势,多年平均蒸发量明显上升.三峡工程运行后,三口分流衰减,但水资源需求量不断增长,退田还湖和留蓄雨洪作为水资源使得丰水期间内湖水面面积增长,气候变化和水资源开发利用导致枯水期水面面积趋于减少.有必要加强洞庭湖区内湖的研究和保护,适当退田还湖提高湖泊率,优化三口水系格局,实施河湖水系连通工程,缓解洞庭湖区季节性水资源紧张问题.
关键词:  洞庭湖区  内湖  遥感监测  水面面积
DOI:10.18307/2019.0314
分类号:
基金项目:湖南省第三次水资源调查评价项目资助.
Changes and driving factors of water surface area for inner lakes in Lake Dongting district in the past 40 years
GAO Ye1,2, XIE Yonghong3,4, ZOU Dongsheng1, HOU Tingjuan5, LI Zhengzui2
1.College of Life Science, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha 410128, P.R.China;2.Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau of Hunan Province, Changsha 410007, P.R.China;3.Key Laboratory for Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, P.R.China;4.Dongting Lake Station for Wetland Ecosystem Observation and Research, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Yueyang 414018, P.R.China;5.Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, P.R.China
Abstract:
In Lake Dongting district, there are some inner lakes located at low-lying fields surrounded by protective embankments. As a result of the dual effects of climate change and human activities, the area of inner lakes had changed apparently over the past decades. In this study, changes of water surface area for inner lakes in Lake Dongting district had been surveyed, using multi-time remote sensing images from 1979 to 2016. The total area was relatively stable, while a rising trend in wet season and decreased in a fluctuation way during dry season. With the increase of lake area, the proportion and extent of area change decreased. Inner lakes larger than 5 km2 were relatively stable, while for lakes less than 5 km2, area change was particularly intense. Water surface area change of inner lakes was mainly influenced by climatic factors, such as rainfall and evaporation, and human activities of water intaking, flood control, drainage and Returning Farmland to Lake. Between 1980-2000 and 2001-2015, the average annual rainfall in both dry season and rainy season showed a decreasing trend in varying degrees in Lake Dongting district, while the average annual evaporation increased significantly, resulting in the utilizable precipitation reducing significantly. After the operation of the Three Gorges project, the diversion flow of 3 diversion outlets of Jingjiang River and the utilizable precipitation both had declined significantly, while the demand for water resources has been increasing, which resulting in reduced water surface area during dry season. In addition, severe water shortages in Lake Dongting area makes it necessary to storing stormwater as water resources, which combined with implementing Returning Farmland to Lake to increase the surface area of lakes during the wet season. For enough water supply, it is necessary to reinforce studies and conservation about inner lakes, make further efforts to return farmland to lake, and optimize the structure of rivers and the river-lake connectivity.
Key words:  Lake Dongting district  inner lakes  remote sensing monitoring  water surface area
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