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引用本文:杨志,唐会元,龚云,朱迪,赵娜.产卵迁徙对金沙江黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构变动的影响.湖泊科学,2018,30(3):753-762. DOI:10.18307/2018.0317
YANG Zhi,TANG Huiyuan,GONG Yun,ZHU Di,ZHAO Na.Effect of spawning migration on the variations of fish assemblage structures in the lower reaches of the Heishui River, Jinsha River. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(3):753-762. DOI:10.18307/2018.0317
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产卵迁徙对金沙江黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构变动的影响
杨志, 唐会元, 龚云, 朱迪, 赵娜
水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所, 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 武汉 430079
摘要:
鱼类作为河流生物的重要组成部分,其在干支流之间的迁徙或移动不仅是常见的,而且通常与鱼类的繁殖活动相联系.金沙江下游支流作为金沙江下游河流网络的重要组成部分,分布有较为丰富的集合生境以及较高的鱼类物种多样性.研究鱼类在金沙江下游干支流的产卵迁徙对支流鱼类群聚结构变动的影响以及支流生境维持对区域鱼类种群维系的意义,对金沙江下游干支流鱼类的保护具有重要的意义.本文拟选择黑水河下游江段作为典型研究区域,通过2014年在该区域的逐月渔获物调查,采用聚类分析、基于距离的线性模型以及基于距离的冗余分析等多种多元分析方法,确定黑水河下游群聚结构的逐月变动是否严重依赖于鱼类在干支流之间的产卵迁徙以及黑水河下游自然生境的维持对区域鱼类种群的维系是否具有重要的意义.结果表明:黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构在金沙江雨季和旱季显著分离的同时,表征这种分离的8种指示种的性成熟个体丰度也在雨季和旱季间发生不同程度的变动.7种指示种鱼类性成熟个体丰度的变动能够解释黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构变动77.20%的变异,其中齐口裂腹鱼、大鳞副泥鳅和犁头鳅性成熟个体丰度的变动是影响黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构变动的3个最显著的因素,7种指示种鱼类在干支流的产卵迁徙对黑水河下游鱼类群聚结构的变动造成了明显的影响.研究表明:在金沙江干支流严重水电开发背景下,维持黑水河现有的自然生境面积对区域鱼类种群的维持具有重要意义.为实行上述目标,建议在白鹤滩水电站蓄水运行后,拆除黑水河的部分小型水坝,并采取其他河流再自然化措施以维持黑水河现有的自然生境面积.
关键词:  金沙江下游  黑水河  栖息地保护  河流连通性  指示种  基于距离的线性模型
DOI:10.18307/2018.0317
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51379134)、国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502206)和水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201501001)联合资助.
Effect of spawning migration on the variations of fish assemblage structures in the lower reaches of the Heishui River, Jinsha River
YANG Zhi, TANG Huiyuan, GONG Yun, ZHU Di, ZHAO Na
Key Laboratory of Ecological Impacts of Hydraulic-projects and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystem of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430079, P. R. China
Abstract:
Fishes are the important parts of aquatic ecosystems in the rivers. Fish migration or movement between mainstream and tributaries is not only common, but also usually closely associated with fish spawning activity. As an important component of the Jinsha River network, the lower reaches of the Jinsha River exhibit relatively abundance meta-habitats and higher fish species diversity. Studying the effect of fish spawning migration between the mainstream of the Jinsha River and its tributaries on the variations of fish assemblages in the tributaries, as well as the importance of tributary habitat maintenance for the preserve of local fish population size, are of great significances to protect the fish resources of the tributaries of the Jinsha River. Heishui River is one of the important tributaries in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River. In this study, we selected some river segments of Heishui River as a typical study region. Based on the monthly fish catch investigations in this study region in 2014, a variety of multivariate analysis methods including cluster analysis, distance-based linear model, distance-based redundancy analysis and other statistic methods were used for:determining whether the monthly changes in fish assemblage structures of the lower reaches of the Heishui River were heavily dependent on fish spawning migration between the mainstream of the Jinsha River and the lower reaches of the Heishui River, and determining whether the natural habitat of the lower reaches in the Heishui River was important for the maintenance of the local fish populations. The results showed that the fish assemblage structures of the lower reaches of the Heishui River were significantly separated in the rainy and dry seasons of the Jinsha River. This separation resulted from the significantly differences in abundances of eight indicator species between the rainy and dry seasons in the Jinsha River. Correspondingly, the abundances of sexual mature individuals of these eight species also showed some changes between the rainy and dry seasons. The variations in abundances of sexual mature individuals of seven indicator species could explain 77.20% of the total variations of fish assemblage structures of the lower reaches of the Jinsha River, herein the variations in abundances of sexual mature individuals of Schizothorax prenanti, Lepturichthys fimbriata and Paramisgurnus dabryanus were the three most significant factors affecting the variations of fish assemblage structures of the lower reaches of the Heishui River. Overall, the spawning migrations of seven indicator species have the significant impacts on the variations of fish assemblage structures of the lower reaches of the Heishui River. This study showed that under the background of serious hydropower developments in the mainstem and tributaries of the Jinsha River, keeping the existing natural habitat areas of the lower reaches of the Heishui River is very important for maintaining fish population survival of the lower reaches of the Jinsha River. For the implementation of the above objective, after the normal operation of the Baihetan reservoir, the removals of some small dams as well as other river re-naturalizing measures should be applied for maintaining the existing natural habitat area of the Heishui River.
Key words:  The lower reaches of the Jinsha River  Heishui River  habitat protection  rive connectivity  indicator species  distance-based linear model
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