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引用本文:吴雅丽,许海,杨桂军,朱广伟,秦伯强.太湖水体氮素污染状况研究进展.湖泊科学,2014,26(1):19-28. DOI:10.18307/2014.0103
WU Yali,XU Hai,YANG Guijun,ZHU Guangwei,QIN Boqiang.Progress in nitrogen pollution research in Lake Taihu. J. Lake Sci.2014,26(1):19-28. DOI:10.18307/2014.0103
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太湖水体氮素污染状况研究进展
吴雅丽1,2, 许海1, 杨桂军2, 朱广伟1, 秦伯强1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.江南大学环境与土木工程学院, 无锡 214122
摘要:
氮是引起湖泊富营养化的关键要素之一.传统观点认为氮缺乏时,湖泊生态系统可以通过生物固氮作用从大气中获取氮来满足自身的需求,因此认为淡水湖泊水体的生产力主要受磷限制.但随着进一步的研究,发现氮限制与氮和磷共同限制更为普遍,且氮的限制常常伴随着水体的富营养化,因此了解富营养化湖泊水体的氮素污染状况具有重要意义.本文介绍了太湖水体氮素的污染状况及其发展趋势,从外源、内源两大方面介绍了太湖水体中氮素的来源,着重分析和比较了河道输入、大气输入以及沉积物释放不同污染源的输入比例.太湖水体氮素污染存在很大的空间差异,其中西部和北部污染较重而东南部相对较轻,入湖河道输入的外源污染是造成太湖水质空间分布差异的主要原因,其中农业面源污染及生活污染在太湖外源污染中占据了相当的比重;湖泊底泥所造成的内源释放也是氮素污染的一个重要原因,但目前对释放量的估算主要是基于底泥悬浮引起的总量估算,关于这些释放量能有多少比例可以被浮游植物利用还不清楚,尤其是有机颗粒物在水体中停留期间的矿化再生值得进一步研究;在氮素的生物转化过程中,生物固氮目前对太湖氮素输入的贡献很小,反硝化作用是太湖水体氮素自净的主要途径.
关键词:  太湖  氮素  污染来源  迁移转化  氮素平衡
DOI:10.18307/2014.0103
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41003043);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2012ZX07101-010);中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所"一三五"重点项目(NIGLAS2012135005);江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK2012895);青年启动基金项目(Y1SL011025)联合资助
Progress in nitrogen pollution research in Lake Taihu
WU Yali1,2, XU Hai1, YANG Guijun2, ZHU Guangwei1, QIN Boqiang1
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China
Abstract:
Excessive nitrogen loading has been regarded as one of the most important factors causing eutrophication of lakes. The traditional views show that when nitrogen deficiency occurs, lake ecosystems can obtain nitrogen from the atmosphere through biological nitrogen fixation to meet their nitrogen needs, so according to this assumption, the main limiting factor of the primary productivity of water bodies is phosphorus availability. However, recent research has shown that nitrogen fixation does not meet ecosystem demands, and nitrogen or nitrogen and phosphorus limitation are generally accepted. Furthermore, eutrophic lakes often exhibit nitrogen limitation, meaning that they are sensitive to additional nitrogen inputs. In this paper, research on the polluting effects of nitrogen in Lake Taihu was reviewed. Both the internal and external loadings of nitrogen to the lake were considered. The nitrogen inputs from the three main sources, i. e. input from rivers, precipitation from atmosphere and release from sediments, were analyzed. The results show that there is obvious spatial heterogeneity in nitrogen pollution of Lake Taihu. The pollution is relatively heavy in the western and northern parts of the lake and relatively light in the southeastern part. River input is a major source of nitrogen loading to the lake. Internal loading is also an important source of nitrogen pollution. However, to release a quantity estimate is mainly based on the amount of sediment resuspension, and about the release quality, how many percentage can be used by phytoplankton is still not clear, especially the particulates mineralization rates. The cycling nitrogen in lakes mostly mediate by nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation and anammox. In Lake Taihu, the process of biological nitrogen fixation has been found to contribute little to the total annual input of nitrogen and denitrification is the main process through which nitrogen is removed from the lake.
Key words:  Lake Taihu  nitrogen  pollution source  migration and transformation  nitrogen balance
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