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引用本文:张运林.湖泊光学研究进展及其展望.湖泊科学,2011,23(4):483-497. DOI:10.18307/2011.0401
ZHANG Yunlin.Progress and prospect in lake optics:A review. J. Lake Sci.2011,23(4):483-497. DOI:10.18307/2011.0401
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湖泊光学研究进展及其展望
张运林
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
从湖泊光学研究理论框架、研究方法、水体生物光学特性、有色可溶性有机物(CDOM)生物地球化学循环、光与浮游植物相互关系、沉积物再悬浮光学效应、湖泊水色遥感等几个方面全面回顾了湖泊光学研究进展.湖泊光学研究理论框架主要包括各光学组份吸收、散射、漫射衰减及辐射传输方程;近年来, 逐步发展了野外时空格局调查、水动力水华过程连续观测、生物光学参数高频自动监测、室内模拟控制实验等相结合的一系列研究方法;水体生物光学特性方面, 开展了大量不同类型湖泊水体颗粒物吸收、散射、后向散射、漫射衰减、真光层深度的野外测定, 获得了固有、表观光学特性之间相互关系以及与光学组份浓度之间定量关系;CDOM生物地球化学循环方面, 利用CDOM光谱吸收、三维荧光技术定量表征了CDOM空间分布、来源、组成差异、消除途径及对紫外辐射衰减影响程度;光与浮游植物相互关系方面, 获得UV-B辐射对浮游植物生长影响, 发展了浮游植物初级生产力计算的垂向归纳模型;沉积物再悬浮光学效应方面, 发现沉积物再悬浮显著影响光场结构, 降低透明度和真光层深度进而降低湖泊初级生产力;湖泊水色遥感方面, 建立了湖泊水质参数悬浮物、叶绿素a浓度及浮游植物、CDOM吸收系数等遥感反演算法, 并应用到卫星影像对富营养化湖泊蓝藻水华开展遥感监测.最后, 基于以上几个方面湖泊光学的研究现状, 从微观和宏观不同层面就湖泊光学研究进一步发展做出了展望。
关键词:  湖泊光学  固有光学特性  表观光学特性  有色可溶性有机物  初级生产力
DOI:10.18307/2011.0401
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX2-YW-QN312);国家自然科学基金项目(40971252,40825004);江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK2009336);香港研究资助局项目(CUHK454909);香港创新及技术基金(ITS/058/09FP)联合资助
Progress and prospect in lake optics:A review
ZHANG Yunlin
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China
Abstract:
This paper reviews the study progress of lake optics including the theory framework,study methods,bio-optical proper-ties,chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) biogeochemical cycle,relationships between light and phytoplankton, optical effect of sediment resuspension,lake water color remote sensing.The theory framework of lake optics includes absorption,scatter-ing and attenuation of four optically active substances (pure water,CDOM,phytoplankton and tripton) and the water radiation transfer equation.A series of methods including the field investigation of spatial-temporal pattern of lake optics,the successive ob-servation of hydrodynamic and algal bloom processes, high frequent observation of bio-optical parameters, the experiment controlled and simulated are presented.The spatial-temporal patters of particles absorption, scattering, backscattering, diffuse attenuation co-efficients and euphotic depth in different lakes are obtained,and the interrelationship of particles absorption,scattering,backscat-tering,diffuse attenuation coefficients,euphotic depth and the concentrations of optically active substances are presented.CDOM spectral absorption coefficient,excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy are used to characterize the spatial-temporal distribution,source,composition,removal and the contribution of CDOM to ultraviolet radiation attenuation.There is also consid-erable evidence that ultraviolet B radiation has an effect on phytoplankton growth and community structure.A vertically generalized production model of primary production is widely used to estimate phytoplankton primary production.Sediment resuspension has a significant effect on underwater light climate,which decreases transparency and euphotic depth,and further decreases phytoplankton primary production.Many algorithms are presented to estimate several water quality parameters including total suspended matter,chlorophyll-a concentrations and CDOM, phytoplankton absorption coefficients.These results are applied to satellite images for the monitoring of algal bloom in eutrophic lakes.Finally,the future developments of lake optics from the macro and microscopic perspectives have been expected.
Key words:  Lake optics  inherent optical properties  apparent optical properties  chromophoric dissolved organic matter  primary production
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