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引用本文:刘恩生.生物操纵与非经典生物操纵的应用分析及对策探讨.湖泊科学,2010,22(3):307-314. DOI:10.18307/2010.0301
LIU Ensheng.Analysis on biomanipulation,non-traditional biomanipulation and discussion of the coun-termeasures of biomanipulation application in waters. J. Lake Sci.2010,22(3):307-314. DOI:10.18307/2010.0301
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生物操纵与非经典生物操纵的应用分析及对策探讨
刘恩生
安徽农业大学, 合肥 230036
摘要:
分析了生物操纵(biomanipulation)和非经典生物操纵(non-traditional biomanipulation)理论的原理、应用条件及局限性,提出了在局部水体治理湖泊富营养化的对策.分析认为:生物操纵的核心内容是利用浮游动物控制藻类;但浮游动物不能有效控制丝状藻类和形成群体的蓝藻水华;我国的大型浅水湖泊浮游动物数量一般并不多,对浮游植物摄食压力不大;在浅水湖泊,浮游动物摄食藻类后很快分解、释放又进入物质循环,因此不能治理湖泊富营养化;浮游动物是浮游植物和鱼类等经济水生动物之间重要的营养通道,过分追求保护浮游动物是值得思考和研究的问题.而非经典生物操纵的核心内容是利用鱼类直接控制蓝藻水华;当鲢、鳙鱼达到阈值密度可以控制蓝藻水华,但很难控制所有藻类和降低N、P治理湖泊富营养化.在局部水体治理湖泊富营养化的对策是:把鱼类控藻、水生植被恢复和局部水域生态系统重建相结合,形成具有利用与控制蓝藻生产鱼类、吸收氮磷净化水质功能的"水质生物调控单元".
关键词:  生物操纵  非经典生物操纵  对策  富营养化
DOI:10.18307/2010.0301
分类号:
基金项目:科技部巢湖水专项项目(2008ZX07103-005-4);安徽农业大学引进与稳定人才项目(wd2007-2)联合资助
Analysis on biomanipulation,non-traditional biomanipulation and discussion of the coun-termeasures of biomanipulation application in waters
LIU Ensheng
Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, P. R. China
Abstract:
The principle, the application conditions and the localization of biomanipulation and non-traditional biomanipulation were analyzed. The countermeasure of biomanipulation of water quality was carried out in Lake Chaohu. The results were; The key mechanism of biomanipulation is to use zooplankton to control phytoplankton, but zooplankton can not effectively control filar alga and cyanobacterial blooms;generally, there are not plentiful zooplankton in large-scale shallow lakes, so the stress of zooplankton on alga is usually littler. Moreover, the alga fed by zooplankton grow more rapidly than before. Besides, zooplankton is the impor-cant energy path between alga and fishes which can not directly feed on alga, so zooplankton should not be protected excessively.However, The main content of non-traditional biomanipulation is that cyanobacterial blooms was controlled by silver carp and big-head. Silver carp and bighead are able to control cyanobacterial blooms only in threshold biomass, but can not control all kind of alga and reduce N and P. The countermeasure to deal with eutrophication in local area should be that the measurement such as non-traditional biomanipulation, restoration of aquatic vegetation and renewedly construct of ecosystem were combined into a unite which have the function of controlling cyanobacterial blooms to produce fishes and reducing N and P to depurate pollution water.
Key words:  Biomanipulation  non-troditional biomanipulation  countermeasure  eutrophication
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