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引用本文:朱松泉,刘正文.伊乐藻-草鱼圈养人工复合生态系统建设的研究.湖泊科学,1996,8(Z1):46-62. DOI:10.18307/1996.sup07
Zhu Songquan,Liu Zhengwen.Study on establishing an artificial compound ecosystem of Elodea-grass carp pen farming. J. Lake Sci.1996,8(Z1):46-62. DOI:10.18307/1996.sup07
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伊乐藻-草鱼圈养人工复合生态系统建设的研究
朱松泉, 刘正文
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
十多年来,在长江中下游浅水湖泊,特别是城郊湖泊,围栏圈养草食性鱼类发展迅速,产量大幅度提高,经济效益明显增长。养鱼过程中,由于大量投喂商品饲料和过量利用湖泊水草资源,加之湖滨人口不断增加等多种原因,导致不少草型湖泊水生植被退化,水草消失,加速了湖泊富营养化进程,湖泊整体功能下降。伊乐藻是1986年从国外引种东太湖的高等沉水植物,已在东太湖归化,并被广大渔民用作草食性养殖鱼类的饲料。本研究是充分利用伊乐藻的生物学和生态学特性,以及易种植、生物量大、可利用程度高等特点,研究了在浅水湖泊人工种植、采收时间和刈割方法,提高其单位面积产量;测定了草鱼对伊乐藻的消化吸收和饲料系数;研究了伊乐藻在水生态系统中的功能等,从而在浅水湖泊中设计和建设伊乐藻-草鱼圈养人工复合生态系统。即以种植伊乐藻为中心,并以它作为草食性鱼类饲料和在水界物质循环的中介,在湖泊大系统内建立的草-鱼平衡系统,以提高湖泊养鱼产量和其他水产品产量,改善渔业水质和优化湖泊生态环境为主要目的。
关键词:  伊乐藻-草鱼  圈养  人工复合生态系统
DOI:10.18307/1996.sup07
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Study on establishing an artificial compound ecosystem of Elodea-grass carp pen farming
Zhu Songquan, Liu Zhengwen
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
During the passed decade, in shallow lakes of the middle and down stream basin of the Yangtze River, especially in urban lakes, there has been an explosive development of pen fish farming, and a rapid increase in fish yield and economic benefit. However, due to the input of artificial food, over-exploitation of aquatic higher plants and increase in population, submerged vegetation have decreased and even disappeared, the process of eutrophication has been quickened and the total function of lakes has been weakened. Elodea Nuttallii was introduced into the East Taihu Lake from abroad in 1986, and soon became established. It has been used as food of cultivated herbiverous fishes by the local fishermen. Based on the biological and ecological property of Elodea, in this project we studied:(1) the planting method, cutting time and mode of Elodea in shallow lakes in order to increase the yield per unit area; (2) the digestibility and food conversion efficiency of Elodea by grass carp so as to determine the ratio of fish yield to Elodea planting area; (3) the role of Elodea in the ecosystem. Finally, we designed and established an artificial compound ecosystem of Eiodea-grass carp pen farming, i. e., on the basis of planting Elodea which is used for grass carp culture and functions as nutrient cycling medium, the grass-fish balance system is established within large lake ecosystems, which should lead to a better development of lakes.
Key words:  Artificial compound ecosystem  Elodea-grass carp pen farming
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