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引用本文:殷名称,缪学祖.太湖常见鱼类生态学特点和增殖措施探讨.湖泊科学,1991,3(1):25-34. DOI:10.18307/1991.0104
Yin Mingcheng(M.C-Yin),Miao Xuezu.Ecological Characteristics Of Common Fishes And Propogation Measures In Taihu Lake. J. Lake Sci.1991,3(1):25-34. DOI:10.18307/1991.0104
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太湖常见鱼类生态学特点和增殖措施探讨
殷名称, 缪学祖
上海水产大学, 200090
摘要:
对太湖55种常见鱼类的生态学特点和种群动态等作了较全面的综合分析, 认为:鱼类的生态学特点和环境因子(包括人为因子)的综合作用是造成目前太湖在鱼类组成、种群数量上均以小型鱼类占绝对优势, 大、中型经济鱼类种群数量下降、结构低龄化的主要原因。因此, 太湖增值措施应包括:限制刀鲚发展、扶持翘嘴红鲌、鳜等名贵凶猛鱼类、加强人工放流、重点保护草上和水底部产卵鱼类、提高起捕规格等。
关键词:  鱼类  生态学  增殖  太湖
DOI:10.18307/1991.0104
分类号:
基金项目:
Ecological Characteristics Of Common Fishes And Propogation Measures In Taihu Lake
Yin Mingcheng(M.C-Yin), Miao Xuezu
Shanghai fisheries University, 200090
Abstract:
A general analysis is presented of long-term investigation on the composition, ecological characteristics, and state in common fishes, and a discussion carried out on the problem of how to propogate most valuable fishes in Taihu Lake. In Taihu Lake, 55 species were commonly collected during 1963-66, 1976-1978, 1981-1984 and 1988-1989. The composition of the fishes is characterized by proponderance in species and quantity of small and trashy fishes. In particular, the undesirable lake anchovy (Coilia ectenes) population is explosively developed with a yield accounting for 50-60% of the total catch of the lake. On the other hand, such natural populations black carp (Myiopharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Clenopkaryngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichihys, molitrix) and bighcad carp (Aristichthys nobilis) almost disappeared, and the popula-tions of carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius aurataus) and bream (Parabramis Pekiensis and Megalobranta terminalis) etc. are greatly decreased by a yield lower than that in the 1950s. Based on the analysis, it is held that the synthetic effects include ecological characteristics of fishes and environmental factors, especially human interference. Therefore some proposals to solve the problem are put forward as follows: restricting the development of the lake anchovy, protecting some precious predatory fishes, as well as submerged plants, lake bottom or other spawning matrix in water, enhancing artificial stocking and strictly defining fishing scale of some valuable fishes.
Key words:  fishes  ccolegy  propogation  Taihu Lake
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