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近100年来长江与洞庭湖汇流河段水文特征演变分析
肖潇1, 毛北平1, 吴时强2
1.长江水利委员会水文局长江中游水文水资源勘测局;2.南京水利科学研究院
摘要:
洞悉长江洞庭湖汇流河段的水文关系及其变化规律对确保长江中下游的防洪安全至关重要。为了掌握汇流河段水文特征演变情况,本文结合汇流河段处监利、城陵矶、螺山等国家重要水文控制断面的近百年水文资料,通过M-K检验、Morlet小波分析等方法研究了该河段逐日水位、流量等水文数据,分析了汇流河段年内分配、年际变化、变化趋势、突变点及变化周期等水文特征,并探讨了具体成因。研究结果表明:①长江与洞庭湖汇流河段年最高水位一般出现在7月,年最低水位一般出现在1月或2月;②汇流河段年径流量主要集中在5-9月,占年径流总量的63.6%~73.4%;③近50年城陵矶水位高、中、低水分别约抬升0.98m、0.56m、1.46m;④近10年城陵矶与监利年径流比降至0.66。⑤在长江中下游水利开发历程中,经突变检验表明,下荆江裁弯取直和三峡蓄水175m对江湖水文特征影响较为明显。⑥城陵矶站和螺山站的年径流量、水位平均周期约为16a,监利站的年径流量、水位平均周期约为8a。⑦1954~2017年间,汇流比最大值一直在降低,其发生时间在逐渐提前。以上成果为深入研究流域复杂的江湖演变规律提供了科学参考。
关键词:  汇流河段  水位  流量  M-K突变检验  小波分析
DOI:
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基金项目:
Dynamics of hydrological characteristics in the Changjiang and Dongting confluence reach in the past 100 years
XIAO Xiao,Mao Beiping,WU Shiqiang
Middle Chanagjiang River Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources Survey,Hydrology Bureau of Changjiang Water Resources Commission
Abstract:
The hydrological relationship and its variation law in the Changjiang and Dongting confluence reach is very important for the flood control safety of the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang. For to control the dynamics of hydrological characteristics in the confluence reach, this paper analyses the hydrological data of Chenglingji, Luoshan and Jianli in the past 100 years. Through the M-K mutation test and Morlet wavelet transform methods to study the daily water level and flow datas. Analysis the hydrological characteristics of the confluence reach, such as annual distribution, interannual variation, variation trend, catastrophe characteristics and variation period, and the specific causes are discussed. It is found the maximum water level of the confluence reach usually occurs in July. And the minimum water level occurs in January or February. The annual runoff is mainly concentrated in May to September, the proportion is 63.6~73.4% in the total. 1968~2017 compared with 1904~1967, the Chenglingji water level rises as a whole, and the high, middle and low rise 0.98m, 0.56m and 1.46m. The annual runoff ratio of Chenglingji and Jianli decreased to 0.66. The cutting and straightening in the 1970s and the impounding 175m of Three Gorges in the 2008 is obvious influence on the hydrological characteristics over the years. The annual runoff and water level’s average period is about 16a in the Chenglingji and Luoshan, and Jianli is about 8a. From 1954 to 2017, the maximum value of discharge ratio has been decreasing, and its occurrence time is gradually advanced. The results provide a scientific reference for the further study of the complex river and lake evolution law in the river basin.
Key words:  confluence reach  water level  flow  M-K mutation test  wavelet transform
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